The course aims to provide students with basic knowledge of human Physiology such as the functioning of the various organs and apparatus of the human body. At the end of the course, students will have to prove both to know the basic principles that regulate normal and integrate functions among different human organs, as to have a good proficiency of general and more specific scientific terms.
General knowledge on the molecular basis of life, from the fundamental chemical properties of the substances, the structure and function of macromolecules involved in life processes, both at the cellular and extracellular level, the metabolic transformations of biomolecules necessary for the human body function. In addition, students will know the significance of the variations of the main metabolic pathways in various physiological and pathological contexts, particularly with regard to diseases of the myocardium and blood vessels.
Cell membranes Mechanisms of transport and ion channels
Nervous system General organizzation of the central, peripheral and vegetative nervous system. Properties of excitable membranes: potential of membrane and potential of action. Classification of nerve fibres.
Muscles Organization of skeletal muscles. Excitation-Contraction Coupling, single muscle twitch and tetanus. Muscle metabolism. Motor unit. Smooth muscle: generalities,
Synaptic transmission Neuromuscular and central synapses. Neurotransmtters.
Main functions of: spinal cord, brainstem, cerebellum, basal ganglia and cerebral cortex.
Cardiovascular System Properties of cardiac muscle. Aspecific and specific myocardium. Mechanic and electrical cardiac cycles. Coronary circulation. Vascular system: caracteristics of blood and blood vessels. Physical factors affecting blood flow. Bernoulli’s principle. Pressure, flow and resistance: Hagen-Poiseuille Law. Blood viscosity. Laminar and urbulent blood flow. Laplace's law applied to vessels. Capillary changes. Functions of veins. Control of heart rate and blood pressure.
Respiratory system Upper and lower airways. Mechanism of Breathing. Alveolar ventilation. Surfactant. Spirometry. Basic mechanism of gas exchanges among lungs, blood and tissues. Carriage of the respiratory gas in the blood.
Urinary system Kidney homeostatic functions; kidney mechanisms: glomerular filtration; tubular absorption and secretion. Renal regulation of water, electrolyte and pH balance.
Digestive system: Basic principles on motor,secretory and absorbent activities
2. CHROMOPROTEINS BINDING OXYGEN
3. PLASMA PROTEINS
4. ENZYMES AND ENZYMATIC CATALYSIS
5. THE CARBOHYDRATE METABOLISM
6. THE LIPID METABOLISM
7. THE METABOLISM OF AMINOACIDS
9. MECHANISM OF ACTION OF HORMONES AND METABOLIC INTEGRATIONS
1) “FISIOLOGIA DELL’UOMO” a cura di F. Conti Casa Editrice Edi- Ermes
2) GANONG “FISIOLOGIA MEDICA” Casa Editrice Piccin
The student can choose any updated book on Human Physiology as long as in the examination he proves to have the knowledge required to pass the test
1. Introduzione alla Biochimica di Lehninger – D.L. Nelson, M.M. Cox – ZANICHELLI
2. Biochimica medica – Siliprandi, Tettamanti – PICCIN