The course is designed to give students an integrated view of the basic cellular processes that regulate the activities of living organisms. The student will know the mechanisms of differentiation of the eukaryotic cell, the method and the molecular basis of the transmission of characters, the mechanisms of replication, translation and modification of genetic information. At the end the course the student should be able to prove that you have acquired the biological and molecular knowledge necessary for the understanding of normal and pathological biological phenomena.
To provide the basic concepts of physics with particular attention to dynamics of rigid body and fluid and to applications to medicine.
Students will learn a general knowledge on the molecular basis of life, from the fundamental chemical properties of the substances, the structure and function of macromolecules involved in life processes, both at the cellular and extracellular level , the metabolic transformations of biomolecules necessary for the human body function. In addition, students will understand the significance of the changes in key metabolic pathways in different physiological and pathological contexts.
The general characteristics of living matter. Chemical composition of living matter.Cell Theory.
BASES OF BIOLOGICAL ORGANIZATION: Organisms classification. Structure and function of prokaryotic cells: plasmatic membrane, cell wall, nucleoid.Structure and function of eukaryotic cells: plasma membrane, nucleus, nucleolus, nucleoplasm, endoplasmic reticulum, ribosomes, Golgi apparatus, lysosomes, peroxisomes, cytoscheleton (microfilaments, microtubules, intermediate filaments). Virus (mode of infection, lytic and lysogenic cycle).
NUCLEIC ACIDS: structure and function of DNA and RNA.
GENE FUNCTION AND STRUCTURE
Structure of prokaryotic genes: organization of operons.
Structure of eukaryotic genes: function of promoters, exons and introns.
Semi-conservative replication. General features of DNA duplication: DNA-polymerases, topoisomerases, replication fork, Okazaki fragments, ‘proofreading activity’. Replication in bacteria. Replication in eukaryotes: telomeres replication.
TRANSCRIPTION AND RNA MATURATION
Central dogma of molecular biology. Structure and function of first, second and third class RNAs. General features of transcription. RNA polymerases. Transcription factors. Transcription in prokayiotes: start and termination of rho-dependent and-independent transcription. Transcription in eukaryiotes: formation of the pre-initiation complex, end of transcription. Mechanism of mRNA maturation: capping, polyA tail, splicing.
Properties of the genetic code. Translation apparatus: structure and functions of tRNA and ribosomes. Translation initiation. Elongation. Termination.
MITOSIS AND MEIOSIS:The meaning of meiosis.
Physical quantities. Measurement units. Dimensinal equations. Vectors. Cinematical quantities. Circular motion.
Mass and force. Principles of dynamics. Forces. Weight. Friction. Elastic force.
Work, power, energy. Kinetic energy. Conservative force. Potential energy. Energy conservation.
Rigid body. Torque. rotational motion. Inertial momentum. Static equilibrium. Lever. Application to human physiology.
Stress and deformations. Elastic and plastic behavior. yeld strenght. Application to bones.
Fluid. density and pression. Pascal's principle. Stevino's law. Archimede's principles.
Fluidodynamics. Flow and continuity equation. Bernoulli's theorem. Application to human pathologies.
Real fluids. Viscosity and Poiseuille's law. Blood properties. Cardiac activity, sphygmomanometry.
Temperature measurement. thermic dilatation. ideal gas laws. Heat and thermodynamic work. First principle of thermodynamics. Phase changes. Heat transmission.
2. CHROMOPROTEINS AND THE TRASPORT OF OXYGEN
3. PLASMA PROTEIN AND THEIR CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS
4. ENZYMES AND ENZYMATIC CATALYSIS
5. THE CARBOHYDRATE METABOLISM
6. THE LIPID METABOLISM
7. THE METABOLISM AMINOACIDS
9. MECHANISM OF ACTION OF HORMONES AND METABOLIC INTEGRATIONS
1. Biology and Genetics: G. Chieffi, S.Dolfini, M.Malcovati Quarta Edizione EDISES
2.Elements of Biology and Genetics: Purves, Sadava, Orians, Heller, Editore Zanichelli.
3.Chimica, Biochemistry and Applied Biology Stefani e Taddei, Editore Zanichelli
P. Davidovits - Physics in Biology and Medicine
1. Introduzione alla Biochimica di Lehninger – D.L. Nelson, M.M. Cox – ZANICHELLI
2. Biochimica medica – Siliprandi, Tettamanti – PICCIN