ING-IND/33 - 9 CFU - 2° Semester

Teaching Staff


Learning Objectives

The Course aims at studying main components and electrical power systems in both normal and abnormal operating conditions. Protection and control systems in transmission and distribution networks are dealt with. The issues concerning the innovative paradigm of Smart Grids operation and control in the presence of distributed generation are also treated.

Detailed Course Content

Some transformations of variables used in power systems [Symmetrical-Components transformation, Per-Unit transformation].

AC Transmission lines [No-load and on-load operation under sinusoidal steady-state conditions. Transmission limits and stability. Use of overhead lines and underground cables. Use of cables in AC transmission. Notions on HVDC Systems. Considerations on operation and planning].

Switching, Safety and Protection Devices [Sectionalisers, Circuit breakers and Fuses].

Transmission and Distribution Networks [Structures and Components, General characteristics of Italian Transmission System electrical lines, Primary Stations (EHV/HV), Primary Substations (HV/MV), Secondary Substations (MV/LV)].

AC Transmission System Controls [Regulating transformers (Boosters e Phase-Shifters), Distributed Ideal Compensation (Series, shunt and mixed compensation), Lumped Compensation (Shunt connected VAr compensation, Synchronous compensators, Shunt condensers, Shunt reactors. Series capacitive compensation), Comparison with Phase Shifting Transformers].

Voltage and Reactive Power Controls in Transmission Systems [Relationship between nodal voltages and reactive power variations, Means for reactive power injection control, Voltage regulation in transformation nodes, Hierarchical voltage control (Primary, Secondary and Tertiary Control)].

Voltage and Active/Reactive Power Controls in active and passive, MV and LV, Distribution Systems [Voltage Quality (Norm CEI EN 50160). Traditional methods for voltage regulation in passive distribution networks. Distributed Generation based on traditional and renewable energy sources. DG impact on Distribution and Transmission network. Connection of passive and active users to HV, MV and LV Italian networks (Italian Norms CEI 0-16 and CEI 0-21). Innovative methods to perform voltage regulation in distribution networks in the presence of DG (Enel Distribuzione SpA). Introduction to the “Smart Grids” paradigm (according to the European Technology Platform)].

Analysis of Symmetrical and Unsymmetrical Faults in Transmission Networks [Short-Circuit Analysis Methods, Sequence circuits of the main network components, Constraints imposed by the network and the fault. Symmetrical (Three-phase) Short-Circuits, Electrical quantities calculation in three-phase short-circuit, Steady-state and transient short-circuit power, Measure of the strength with which node "k" withstands short-circuits in node "h" (Electrical proximity of nodes). “Strong” and “weak” nodes. Unsymmetrical Short-Circuits, Electrical quantities calculation in single-phase, phase-to-phase, phase-to-phase-to-ground short-circuits. Sequence circuits connection. Comparison between the Amplitudes of the Alternating Components of Short-Circuit Currents at System Frequency in Transmission Systems. Influence of the Network Parameters.

Short-Circuit Analysis in MV and LV Distribution Networks [Methods for symmetrical and unsymmetrical faults, CEI Standards. Influence of neutral grounding on single-phase-to-ground faults].

Over-Current Protection Systems [Fundamentals on protection systems, Basic types of protective relays for transmission and distribution systems, Protection schemes and automation for italian transmission and distribution systems, Primary and secondary substations protections].

Textbook Information

Roberto Marconato, "Electric Power Systems, Vol. I, II", Ed. CEI.

James J. Burke, "Power Distribution Engineering _ Fundamentals and applications", Ed. Dekker Inc.

J. Lewis Blackburn, Thomas J. Domin, “Protective relaying - Principles and application”, Ed. Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.

Fabio Massimo Gatta, “Impianti Elettrici”, Ed. Esculapio.

Open in PDF format Versione in italiano