FUNDAMENTALS OF CLINICAL SCIENTIFIC METHOD.
- "Traditional" and Translational Medicine
- EBM and EBP - Medicine and Medical Practice based on scientific evidence: main applications.
- PPPM - Predictive, Preventive, Personalized and Participatory Medicine.
HISTORY AND PHYSICAL EXAMINATION OF THE PATIENT.
- Symptoms and signs.
- General principles of integration with diagnostic and laboratory tests.
Structure of the history - anamnesis
- current, next and remote
- Environmental and working features
- Nutrition, physical activity and lifestyles
- Family (environment, habits, specific diseases, hereditary conditions)
General methodology of the physical examination.
- Physical Examination General: vital signs, the state of nutrition and hydration, facies, decubitus, psychological and perceptive disturbance, visible mucous membranes, skin and subcutaneous skin appendages.
- Elementary lesions of the skin, rashes, rash, purples, enantemaand other skin manifestations of systemic diseases.
- Changes in body temperature. Fever and thermal curve in febrile states of various kinds.
- Semiology general of the pain: visceral pain, somatic pain, characteristics of the main pain syndromes (spine, thoracic, abdominal colic, headache etc.).
- The changes in level of consciousness, coma, syncope, fainting. Definition, classification pathophysiological and clinical approach.
- Symptoms guide (cardiac : dyspnea, fatigue, palpitation, pain, etc.) and physical examination of cardiovascular system.
- Symptoms guide (respiratory : chest pain, cough, hemoptysis, sputum, dyspnea, cyanosis) and physical examination of the respiratory system.
- Symptoms guide (gastroenterological : diarrhea, constipation, vomiting, regurgitation, etc.) and methodology of clinical and instrumental evaluation of the digestive system.
ELEMENTS OF PATHOPHYSIOLOGY AND MODELS
- Pathophysiology of heart failure and general principles of the cardiovascular imaging studies (X-ray, ECG, ultrasound, scintigraphy, CT, MRI, catheterization, etc.)
- Pathophysiology of respiratory organs and general principles of the main laboratory tests in the study of the respiratory system (blood gas analysis, spirometry, sputum examination, examination of the pleural fluid, radiology, etc.)
- Pathophysiology of blood pressure regulation: essential and secondary hypertension - Classification of the hypertensive patient and clinical assessment of cardiovascular risk.
- The pain of cardiac origin. Framing, semeiological and pathophysiological characteristics. Correlation with the main laboratory and instrumental findings.
- Clinical syndromes and neurological examination (stroke and TIA, pyramidal syndromes, extrapyramidal, cerebral, meningeal etc.).
- Classification, pathophysiology and clinical-instrumental evaluation of liver failure. Physical examination of the liver and the main diagnostic procedures. Portal hypertension and ascites. Encephalopathy and hepatic coma.
- Classification, pathophysiology and clinical semiotics of cholestasis.
- Classification, pathophysiology, signs and functional evaluation of the patient with
• Classification, pathophysiology, signs and functional evaluation of the patient with endocrine and / or metabolic disorders (diabetes, thyroid disease, lipid disorders, sterility / infertility)
• Classification, pathophysiology, signs and functional evaluation of the patient with diseases of the blood and lymphatic system
• Classification, pathophysiology, signs and functional evaluation of the patient with rheumatic diseases, allergic and autoimmune
• Classification, pathophysiology, signs and functional evaluation of the patient with inflammatory and granulomatous disease.
• Classification, pathophysiology, signs and functional evaluation of the patient with Kidney disease: glomerular nephritis, nephrotic syndrome, acute and chronic renal failure
• Classification, pathophysiology, signs and functional evaluation of the patient with infectious diseases, bacterial, viral, protozoan, fungal and metazoan.
Medical history, medical records, medical investigation.
- Detection of vital signs: blood pressure, heart rate and respiratory rate.
- Nutritional status, diuresis, other physiological functions. Assessment of the state of consciousness.
- Physical examination of the head, neck and limbs (visible mucous membranes and skin appendages, thyroid glands and superficial)
- Physical examination of the chest (heart and lung auscultation, chest percussion, palpation, etc.)
- Neurological examination (voluntary movement, coordination, reflexes, meningeal signs, etc.)
- Examination of the abdomen (the hypochondriac organs and ascites).
- Tutorials electrocardiography
- Physical examination guided by cardiac and internal medicine ultrasound
Carolyn JarvisPhysical Examination and Health Assessment / 2011- 7th ed. ELSEVIER