The aim of the course is the achievement by the student of descriptive and predictive ability of physics applied to biological systems. The review, in the medical field, of the scientific method in terms of language, models and representation of the mechanical, thermal, electromagnetic phenomena represents a specific objective as well as the knowledge of basic physical principles of the diagnostic and therapeutic techniques used in modern medicine.
The subjects that will be covered are: fluid mechanics and its implications in hemodynamic; wave mechanics with specific developments relating to sound and hearing; the use of ultrasounds in medicine; vision and optical instruments; interaction of radiation with matter; generation, use and biological effects of ionizing radiation; dosimetry and radiation protection.
The scientific field of reference is Applied Physics (FIS/07).
Physical quantities and their measurement ‐ Physical quantities, units and systems of measurement, dimensional analysis. Measurements and uncertainties. Instrument characteristics of instrument. Analytical and graphical representations. Scalar and vector quantities.
Elements of mechanics and concepts of Biomechanics ‐ Kinematics. Circular and harmonic motion. Momentum. Principles of dynamics. Work. Energy. Power and efficiency. Statics. Elasticity. Physiological statics. Bone fractures.
Basics of fluids and applications in biological systems – Density. Viscosity. Hydrostatic pressure. Fluid statics. Drip. Dynamics of ideal fluids. Bernoulli's theorem. Aneurysm and stenosis. Real liquids. Poiseuille's relation. Hydraulic resistance. Sphygmomanometry.
Temperature measurement and thermoregulation – Temperature and heat. Temperature metrology. Temperature scales. Clinical thermometers. Heat capacity and Specific Heat. Thermal equilibrium. Change of phase and latent heat. Heat transfer mechanisms. Basal metabolic power.
Electrical and bioelectrical phenomena – Electrical charges and fields. Capacitors. Electrical current. Ohm's laws. Elementary circuits. Joule effect. RC circuits. Pacemaker and defibrillator. Risks related to the use of electricity.
Waves and radiations – Wave phenomena. Period and frequency. Amplitude and energy. Mechanical waves. Sound. Decibel. Isophonic curves. Phonendoscope. Ultrasonic wavers. Electromagnetic waves. Electromagnetic spectrum. Eye and vision. Radiation for diagnostics and therapy. X ray imaging. Radioisotopes and nuclear medicine. Radiotherapy. Biological effects of ionizing radiation. Introduction to radiation protection dosimetry.
Scannicchio D., Fisica Biomedica, EdiSES, 2013
Davidson R.C., Metodi Matematici per un Corso introduttivo di Fisica ‐ EdiSes, 2013
Lecture notes provided during the course