MICROBIOLOGY - channel 2

MED/07 - 7 CFU - 1° Semester

Teaching Staff


Detailed Course Content

a. Module of Bacteriology (3 credits)

Microorganisms and parasites: infection of the host

a. Microorganism-host relationships. b. The microbial population normally resident in the human body. c. Essential characteristics and differences of bacteria, viruses, fungi, protozoa and other parasites known to infect humans. d. The pathogenic mechanisms of microorganisms. e. The various possibilities of infection and spread of infection. f. Infection control: key features of prevention and antimicrobial therapy

2. The prokaryotic cell
a. Fundamentals of microbial physiology
b. The organization of the bacterial cell
i. Structure and function of the cell wall
ii. Cellular components
iii. Accessory components (capsule, flagella, pili)
iv. Biofilms
v. The spore

3. The bacterial genetics and cell growth
a. Transfer of genetic information in prokaryotes:
i. Recombination in bacteria: conjugation, transformation and transduction ii. Plasmids and transposable elements.
b. The bacterial cell cycle and division

4. The pathogenesis of bacterial infection
a. The phases of bacterial infection
b. Pathogenicity and virulence.
c. Mechanisms of pathogenicity
d. Bacterial toxins
e. The host response to bacterial infection

5. Infection control
a. Sterilization, disinfection and antisepsis
b. The antimicrobial chemotherapy:
i. Classification and main characteristic of principal groups of antibiotics
ii.Mechanism of action
iii. The antibiotic resistance
iv.Susceptibility testing
c. Vaccines

6. The diagnostic principles of bacterial diseases
a. Microscopic examination
b. Direct diagnosis
i. Culture methods
ii.Other methods
c. Indirect diagnosis
i. Serological methods

7. Systematic Bacteriology (taxonomy, main characteristics, pathogenicity, infectious diseases, possibility of prevention, diagnosis and antibiotic chemotherapy)
a. Key Features of: Staphylococcus, Streptococcus, Enterococcus, Neisseria, Branhamella, Mycobacterium, Streptomyces, Nocardia, Actinomyces, Corynebacterium, Lactobacillus, Bartonella,
Listeria, Gardnerella, Bacillus, Clostridium, Enterobacteriaceae, Haemophilus, Pasteurella, Vibrio, Legionella, Brucella, Bordetella, Acinetobacter, Pseudomonas, Bacteroides, Campylobacter,
Helicobacter, Mycoplasma, Ureaplasma, Chlamydiaceae, Rickettsiaceae, Spirochetaceae

Module of Virology (2 Credits)
1. Viruses and sub- viral structures
a. The organization of the viral particle
b. Virus replication
c. Subviral pathogens: prions, viroids, and virusoides

2. The pathogenesis of the viral infection
a. Mode of transmission
b. Types of viral infection: acute and persistent infection (latent, slow, chronic, oncogenic)
c. The host response to viral infection
d. The interferon

3. The control of viral infections
a. The antiviral chemotherapy
i. Classification
ii. Mechanism of action and resistance
iii. Combined therapies
b. Vaccines

4. The diagnostic principles of viral diseases
a. Culture method
b. Culture indendent and molecular methods
c. Serological methods

5. Key features of main viruses of medical importance:
a. Poxviridae, Herpesviridae, Adenoviridae, Human Papillomavirus and Polyomavirus, Parvoviridae, Paramyxoviridae, Orthomyxoviridae, Picornaviridae, Arenaviridae, Bunyaviridae, Caliciviridae,
Coronaviridae, Filoviridae, Flaviridae, Reoviridae, human retroviruses, Togaviridae and Rubivirus, Human hepatitis viruses (HAV, HBV, HCV, HDV, HEV, HGV)

Module of Mycology and Parasitology (2 Credits)
1. The Fungi
a. Characteristics of fungi and their metabolism
i. The fungal cell
2. Host-parasite relationships.
a. Mechanisms of pathogenicity
i. Micetism i.
ii. Mycotoxicosis iii. Mycosis

b. Pathogenesis of mycosis c. Mode of infection d. Origin, classification and description of mycosis e. Dimorphism f. The host defense to fungal infections

3. The fungi responsible for mycosis
a. Primary pathogens: Dermatophytes, Dimorphics
b. Opportunistic mycosis
i. Yeasts: Candida, Cryptococcus, Malassezia, Trichosporon
ii. Filamentous fungi: Aspergillus, Fusarium, Zygomycetes
c. Fungi responsible for subcutaneous mycosis

4. The antifungal drugs
a. Antifungal drugs
i. Classification i.
ii. Mechanism of action and resistance ii.

5. The diagnostic principles of fungal diseases a. Microscopy and culture isolation b. Molecular methods c.Serological methods

6. Parasites
a. Morphological characteristics and pathogenic mechanism of action. a.
b. Essential characteristics and differences of human infections caused by protozoa and other human parasites.
c. The various possibilities of infection and spread of human parasitic infections.
d. The main parasites of medical importance
i.Protozoa (Fagellates, Amoebae, Coccidia, Microsporidia)
ii. Metazoans (Platyhelminthes and Nematodes)

7. The antiprotozoal drugs
a. The main drugs
b. Vaccines

8. The diagnostic principles for parasitic infections
a. Blood parasites
b. Enteric parasites and urinary tract parasites
c. Tissue parasites

Textbook Information

Le edizioni più recenti:
TESTO 1: Principi di microbiologia medica XIV edizione - La Placa M. Edises
TESTO 2: Microbiologia Medica sesta edizione - Murray P. R., Rosenthal K.S., Pfaller M. A. - Casa Editrice Elsevier.
TESTO 3: Principi di microbiologia medica - Antonelli G., Clementi M., Pozzi G., Rossolini G.M. - Casa Editrice Ambrosiana

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