The course aims to provide the qualitative and quantitative knowledge of general chemistry, essential to deal with the interpretation of chemical and physical-chemical phenomena in the engineering field, as well as the ability to learn how to use the scientific method for the resolution of real problems.
Knowledge and understanding
The student will know the main phenomena of basic chemistry and will be able to understand their applications in the engineering field. The student will also learn the ability to understand a scientific text, to re-elaborate, even in an original way, what he/she has studied and to transform and reflect on the knowledge learned.
Applying knowledge and understanding
The student will be able to apply the acquired knowledge to recognize the laws that govern chemical and chemical-physical phenomena, to independently solve problems and exercises of different complexity, also in other fields than chemistry.
The student, using the knowledge of chemical and chemical-physical phenomena acquired during the course, will be able to independently judge the importance of the results obtained, as well as the meaning of the units of measurement and the order of magnitude of the variables that describe the phenomena.
The student who successfully passes the course will be able to present the knowledge acquired in a clear and accurate way.
The student who has successfully passed the course will have acquired the ability to study independently and to deepen the concepts studied in full independence.
Frontal lectures and exercises on the topics held in the classroom.
Should teaching be carried out in mixed mode or remotely, it may be necessary to introduce changes with respect to previous statements, in line with the programme planned and outlined in the syllabus.
1. *Nature of Matter. Matter and its states of aggregation. Homogeneous and heterogeneous systems. Phases and their separations. Elements and compounds. Atoms and molecules. Law of conservation of mass. Law of definite proportions. Law of multiple proportions. Avogadro's law. Avogadro’s number. Mole.
2. *Structure of matter. Atom. Protons, neutrons and electrons. Atomic number and mass number. Atomic mass unit. Isotopes. Mass defect. Thomson’s experiment and his atomic model. Millikan's experiment. Rutherford experiment and his atomic model di Rutherford. Electromagnetic radiation. Black-body radiation. Photoelectric effect. Emission Spectrum of Hydrogen. Bohr’s theory. De Broglie’s equation. Heisenberg’s uncertainty principle. Quantum mechanics. Schrödinger equation. Quantum numbers. Orbitals. Polyelectronic atoms. Pauli exclusion principle. Hund’s rule. Aufbau principle. Periodic table. Periodic properties of elements.
3. *Chemical bond. Binding energy. Ionic bond. Covalent bond. Dative bond. Lewis structures. Valence. Valence bond theory. Hybridization. Resonance. MO-LCAO method. Metallic bond. Hydrogen bonding.
4. *Chemical compounds and nomenclature. Valence and oxidation number. Oxidation and reduction. Hydrides. Hydracids. Oxides. Peroxides. Hydroxides. Oxyacids. Salts. Chemical equations. Chemical reactions. Redox reactions. Balancing of reactions. Limiting reagent. Chemical formula (empirical, molecular, structural formula). Elemental analysis.
5. *Thermodynamics. Thermodynamic system. Extensive and intensive properties. State variables. State functions. Work. Heat. Energy. Heat capacity. Law’s of thermodynamics.
6. *States of aggregation of matter. Gaseous state. Ideal gas. Boyle’s law. Gay-Lussac's law. Charles's law. Avogadro’s law. Ideal gas law. Gaseous diffusion. Dalton’s law. Partial pressure. Real gases. Van der Waals’ equation. Liquefaction of gases. Liquid state. Surface tension. Vapor pressure. Clausius–Clapeyron relation. Solid state. Crystalline and amorphous solids. Anisotropy and isotropy. Unit cells. Bravais Lattices. X-ray diffraction and Bragg's law. Classification of solids.
7. *Changing States of Matter and heterogeneous equilibriums. Types of phase transition. Clausius–Clapeyron relation. Gibbs' phase rule. Phase diagrams (water, carbon dioxide, sulphur).
8. *Solutions. Solubility. Concentration. Ideal solutions. Raoult's law. Azeotropes. Colligative properties. Relative lowering of vapor pressure. Depression of freezing point. Elevation of boiling point. Osmotic pressure.
9. *Chemical equilibrium. Law of mass action. Le Chatelier's principle. Thermodynamics and chemical equilibrium. Equilibrium constant (Kp e Kc). Homogeneous and heterogeneous equilibriums. Gaseous equilibriums. Effect of temperature, pressure and concentration on equilibriums.
10. *Electrolytic solutions. Electrolytic dissociation. Strong and weak electrolytes. Degree of dissociation. Van 't Hoff factor. Electrical resistance and conductance. Equivalent conductance. Kohlrausch’s law. Acids and bases. Theories of acids and bases. Strength of acids and bases. Ionic product for water. Relationship between Ka and Kb. pH. pH of acids, bases and salts. Buffer solutions. pH indicators. pH titrations. Solubility equilibriums. Solubility product. Common ion effect.
11. *Electrochemistry. Redox reactions. Electrode potentials. Nernst equation. Standard half-cell reduction potential. Galvanic cells. Concentration cells. Prediction of redox reactions. Equilibrium constant of redox reactions. Determining pH, KPS e degree of dissociation. Free energy and redox reactions.
12. *Electrolysis. Decomposition potential. Overpotential. Faraday's laws. Electrochemical equivalent. Electrolysis of melts. Electrolysis of water. Electrolysis of water solutions. Industrial applications. Accumulators. Corrosion. Passivation.
13. *Chemical kinetics. Reaction rate. Rate law. Molecularity. Order of reaction. First and second order reactions. Arrhenius' equation. Effect of temperature. Activation energy. Catalysts. Chain reactions.
1. Pietro Tagliatesta, CHIMICA GENERALE E INORGANICA, edi-ermes.
2. Maurizio Speranza; CHIMICA GENERALE E INORGANICA, edi-ermes.