Academic Year 2021/2022 - 3° Year

GEO/10 - 9 CFU - 1° Semester

The main objective is to provide students with the basic notions of geophysics and the tools necessary to process and use geophysical data.

__Knowledge and understanding:__

- theoretical bases of subsoil investigation techniques, such as refraction seismic, reflection seismic, gravimetric and magnetic prospecting;

- theoretical bases concerning the Earth's gravitational and magnetic fields;

- theoretical bases on earthquakes and seismic sources.

__Ability to apply knowledge:__

- ability to apply the knowledge acquired for the interpretation of geophysical data in order to characterize the subsoil;

- ability to understand the physical properties of the Earth system;

- ability to understand seismic phenomena and their hazard.

__Autonomy of judgment__

- ability to argue personal interpretations regarding geophysical investigations and data.

__Communication skills__

- ability of expository synthesis and use of appropriate technical-scientific language.

Face to face.

Should teaching be carried out in mixed mode or remotely, it may be necessary to introduce changes with respect to previous statements, in line with the programme planned and outlined in the syllabus.

Introduction: definition of geophysics, spectral analysis, convolution, cross-correlation, digital filtering.

Planet Earth: the discovery of the planets, Kepler's laws of planetary motion, orbital parameters, characteristics of the planets, Titius-Bode law, angular momentum, origin of the solar system.

Gravitational field and gravimetric methods: physical bases, variation of g with latitude, shape of the Earth, geoid, measuring instruments, gravity corrections, interpretations of gravity anomalies, applications.

Earth's magnetic field and magnetic methods: basic concepts, magnetic properties of materials, the earth's magnetic field, measuring instruments, surveys, magnetic anomalies, applications.

Applied seismology - basics: stress and strain, seismic waves, propagation, seismic sources, recording of seismic signals.

Seismic refraction: critical refraction and head waves, half-space, horizontal layer, two horizontal layers, horizontal multi-layers, inclined layer, survey, applications.

Reflection seismic: general considerations, equation of reflected waves, reflected waves and depth, reflected waves and velocity, method t^{2} - x^{2}.

Earthquakes: elastic rebound, seismic cycle, fault geometry, focal mechanisms, locations, magnitude and intensity, seismograms, internal structure of the Earth.

Exercises on magnetic and gravimetric methods.

Exercises in applied seismology.

Exercises on reading earthquake seismograms, magnitudes and locations.

- Kearey et al. (2002). An Introduction to Geophysical Exploration. Wiley-Blackwell.
- Lowrie (2007). Fundamentals of Geophysics, Second edition. Cambridge University Press.
- Reynolds (2011). An introduction to applied and environmental geophysics. John Wiley & Sons.
- New Manual of Seismological Observatory Practice (NMSOP-2). https://bib.telegrafenberg.de/publizieren/bibliotheksverlag/nmsop
- Stein, S., Wysession, M. (2003). An Introduction to Seismology, Earthquakes, and Earth Structure. Blackwell Publishing.
- Havskov, J., Ottemoller, L. (2010). Routine Data Processing in Earthquake Seismology. Springer.
- Lecture notes.