Knowledge of cell structure and functions. From cells to organisms. Basic molecular mechanisms involved in DNA duplication, regulation of gene expression, development, differentiation, cell proliferation, biogenesis of organelles and cellular structures, interaction between cells and evolution.
To provide the basic concepts of physics with particular attention to dynamics of rigid body and fluid and to applications to medicine.
Students will learn a general knowledge on the molecular basis of life, from the fundamental chemical properties of the substances, the structure and function of macromolecules involved in life processes, both at the cellular and extracellular level , the metabolic transformations of biomolecules necessary for the human body function. In addition, students will understand the significance of the changes in key metabolic pathways in different physiological and pathological contexts.
The course includes frontal lessons. Due to the COVID-19 emergency there may be variations to what was declared
Classes on theoretical parts, examples and exercises
Should the circumstances require online teaching, appropriate modifications to what is hereby stated may be introduced, in order to achieve the main objectives of the course.
Exams may take place online, depending on circumstances.
Font lessons, with the support of slides and audiovisual tools. At the end of each lesson is given ample space to the comment of the topics covered.
Should teaching be carried out in mixed mode or remotely, it may be necessary to introduce changes with respect to previous statements, in line with the programme planned and outlined in the syllabus.
Introduction to the Cell. The Universal Features of Cells on Earth. The Diversity of Genomes and the Tree of Life. The Chemical Components of a Cell. Catalysis and the Use of Energy by Cells. How Cells Obtain Energy from Food. The Shape and Structure of Proteins. Protein Function. The Structure and Function of DNA. Chromosomal DNA and Its Packaging in the Chromatin Fiber. The Global Structure of Chromosomes. DNA Replication Mechanisms. From DNA to RNA. From RNA to Protein. Control of Gene Expression. Internal Organization of the Cell. Membrane Transport of Molecules. The Cell Cycle and Programmed Cell Death. The Mechanics of Cell Division. Mitosis and Meiosis. Patterns of Inheritance. Mendel’s experiments. Sex chromosomes and sex-linked inheritance. Human genetics. Human Genome Project. Stem Cells.
Physical quantities. Measurement units. Dimensinal equations. Vectors. Cinematical quantities. Circular motion.
Mass and force. Principles of dynamics. Forces. Weight. Friction. Elastic force.
Work, power, energy. Kinetic energy. Conservative force. Potential energy. Energy conservation.
Rigid body. Torque. rotational motion. Inertial momentum. Static equilibrium. Lever. Application to human physiology.
Stress and deformations. Elastic and plastic behavior. yeld strenght. Application to bones.
Fluid. density and pression. Pascal's principle. Stevino's law. Archimede's principles.
Fluidodynamics. Flow and continuity equation. Bernoulli's theorem. Application to human pathologies.
Real fluids. Viscosity and Poiseuille's law. Blood properties. Cardiac activity, sphygmomanometry.
Temperature measurement. thermic dilatation. Heat and thermodynamic work. First principle of thermodynamics. Phase changes. Heat transmission.
1) Alberts et al. L’Essenziale di Biologia Molecolare della Cellula . Zanichelli
2) Maraldi, Tacchetti et al. Biologia Citologia Medica Ediermes
3) De Leo et al. Biologia e Genetica Edises
P. Davidovits - Physics in Biology and Medicine