MED/08 - 5 CFU - 1° Semester

Teaching Staff


Learning Objectives

Knowledge of the morphological and molecular features, nosological classification and differential diagnosis of the main diseases. Knowledge of early diagnosis, prognostic and predictive factors of neoplastic diseases.

Course Structure

Frontal teaching

In case of teaching in mixed or remote mode, necessary changes can be introduced in order to comply the planned program in the syllabus

Detailed Course Content

Tissue biopsy

Management of surgical biopsy

Preparation of histological specimen

Intraoperative diagnosis

Microscope observation

Histological diagnosis


Cytological examination

- exfoliative cytology

- needle aspiration cytology

Preparation of cytological specimen

Fixation of cytological specimen

Stainings of cytological specimen

Microscope evaluation of cytological specimen


Evaluation of benign and malignant criteria

Cytological diagnosis

- diagnostic categories

Molecular morphology


Anatomic Pathology- cellular damage.

Cellular response to stress. Reversible and irreversible cellular damage. Apoptosis. Cellular response to ischemia. Molecular mechanisms of cell death. Coagulative, colliquative, caseous, rubbery, haemorrhagic, fat and fibrinous necrosis.

Anatomic Pathology – the disorders of proliferation and cell differentiation: hyperplasia, metaplasia and neoplasia.

Cellular cycle. Cell proliferation in histological sections. Hyperplasia and hypertrophy. Metaplasia. Neoplasia: benign and malignant. Preneoplastic lesions: dysplasia and in situ neoplasia. Morphological invasiveness and metastasis. Histological grading of malignancy. Stadiation (TNM). Tumor classification. Molecular basis of tumor.

Anatomic Pathology – flogosis and disease of immune system.

Acute and chronic flogosis. The organ-specific autoimmune diseases (Sjogren syndrome, Goodpasture syndrome, Graves disease) and systemic (SLE, rheumatoid arthritis, scleroderma).

Cardiovascular pathology

Main anatomical aspects of heart failure; ischemic heart disease: epidemiological and classification aspects, evolution and complications. My cardites: epidemiological and classification aspects. Cardiomyopathies: epidemiological and classification aspects; Evolution. Heart transplantation. Valve pathology: epidemiological and classification aspects of the main valvular defects acquired. Cardiac tumors. Pericarditis. Atherosclerosis: epidemiology and histological changes; evolution of plaque. Arteriosclerosis. Vasculitis: classification aspects. Aneurysms: classification and evolution.

Pathology of the respiratory system

Inflammatory pathology of the lung: epidemiological aspects and classifications; degree and stage of primitive tumors. Prognostic and predictive markers. Pleurisy. Primitive and metastatic tumors of the pleurae.



Pathology of the salivary glands




Pathology of the digestive system.

Esophagus: notes on major congenital anomalies and diseases of motor abnormalities; Infectious esophagitis, gastroesophageal reflux disease and Barrett's esophagus; morphological pictures and anatomo-clinical correlations of esophageal cancer.

Stomach: main morphological pictures of gastritis and gastric ulcer; the role of endoscopic biopsy; anatomic and clinical pictures of gastric cancer. Non-epithelial tumors and gastric GIST.

Small intestine and colon: enterocolitis; malabsorption syndromes; idiopathic inflammatory bowel disease; vascular diseases; benign and malignant tumors: general, morphological pictures, progression adenoma-carcinoma, familial polyposis, staging.


Diseases of the liver and biliary tract.

Circulatory disturbances of the liver. Acute and chronic viral hepatitis; cirrhosis of the liver: morphological pictures, evolution and complications; liver biopsy. Notes on alcoholic liver disease and the main metabolic liver diseases. General and main morphological pictures of biliary cirrhosis and primary sclerosing cholangitis. And hepatocellular tumors colangiocellulari: morphological pictures, complications and natural history.

Cholelithiasis. Carcinoma of the gallbladder and extrahepatic bile ducts: morphological pictures, natural history and complications.


Diseases of the pancreas.

Pancreatitis: morphological pictures, natural history and complications.

Pancreatic cancer: morphological pictures, natural history and complications.

Diseases of lymphonodes

Hodgkin lymphoma

Non Hodgkin lymphoma

Diseases of the kidney, the lower urinary tract and the male genital.

Main cystic kidney diseases: classification and morphological pictures.

Circulatory disturbances of the kidney: classification, pathogenesis and morphological pictures.

Primary and secondary glomerular diseases: overview, classification, pathogenesis, natural history and complications, morphological pictures; the role of renal biopsy.

Tubulopathies: general information and main morphological pictures. Urolithiasis. Interstitial nephritis: etiology, natural history and complications, morphological pictures. Toxic nephropathy and drugs.

Kidney tumors: epidemiology, natural history, morphological pictures, staging.

Bladder cancer: epidemiology, natural history, morphological pictures, staging.

Prostatic hyperplasia. Prostate cancer: pathogenesis, natural history, morphological pictures. The role of the prostate biopsy.

Didymus and epididymal tumors.


Disease of the breast.

The breast lump: diagnostic procedure. Cytodiagnostics by aspiration. Secretions from

nipple. Intraoperative biopsy and histology.

Fibrocystic breast disease: histologic lesions elementary and pre-neoplastic.

Benign breast tumors: papilloma, fibroadenoma. Pyllodes tumors.

Breast cancer: epidemiology, risk factors, early diagnosis, natural history, morphological pictures and prognostic factors. Histological type, histological grade and stage. Hormone receptors.

The sentinel node: rational and applications.

Gynecomastia and male breast cancer.


Pathology of the female genitalia.

- Cervicitis. CIN and invasive cervical cancer: risk factors and diagnostic role

the cytology smear (Papanicolaou test).

- Causes of abnormal uterine bleeding. Dysfunctional. Adenomyosis and endometriosis.

Endometrial hyperplasia (simple, complex, with atypia). Endouterini polyps.

Endometrial cancer. Benign and malignant mesenchymal tumors of the uterus. Diseases

Trophoblast: vesicular mole, choriocarcinoma.

- Ovarian cysts non-neoplastic.

- Ovarian tumors: classification histogenetic. Prognostic factors of ovarian cancer.


Thyroid disorder.

The thyroid nodule: diagnostic, validity and limits of cytological aspiration.

Thyroiditis: etiology, natural history and morphological pictures.

Hyperthyroidism (thyrotoxicosis): Graves' disease-Basedow and toxic adenoma.

Diffuse toxic goiter and multinodular: correlations with clinical manifestations and complications. Thyroid neoplasms: epidemiology, natural history, morphological pictures and prognostic factors.

Medullary thyroid cancer and syndromes multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN).


Skin cancers.

Malignant epithelial tumors of the skin: morphological pictures and natural history of squamous cell carcinoma. Nevi and melanomas: epidemiology and natural history. Pattern of growth and prognostic factors of melanoma.


Diseases of the central nervous system.

Hydrocephalus. Causes of intracranial hypertension and complications, brain herniations.

Morphological pictures and correlations with the etiology and natural history of disorders of cerebral circulation: dural hematoma, subdural hematoma, aneurysms, subarachnoid hemorrhage, cerebral hemorrhage, heart attack. Inflammatory diseases: meningitis, brain abscess, viral encephalitis. Spongiform encephalopathies. Main morphological pictures of degenerative diseases: Alzheimer's disease, Parkinsonism, Huntington's disease. Demyelinating diseases: multiple sclerosis.

General overview and morphological pictures of CNS tumors, with reference to the epidemiology and natural history. Role of stereotactic biopsy. Metastatic tumors of the CNS.


Diseases of the musculoskeletal system.

Main morphological pictures of the most common bone changes of endocrine or metabolic nature, primary and secondary (rickets, Paget's disease, osteomalacia and osteoporosis). Essential diagnostic aspects of osteomyelitis, and osteoarticular tuberculosis.

Classification of primary and metastatic tumors of the skeleton and soft tissues. Staging.

Textbook Information

Robbins - Cotran "Le basi patologiche delle malattia" 9a edizione Elsevier
Gallo - D’Amati Anatomia Patologica – La sistematica” UTET

Open in PDF format Versione in italiano