To gain a clear understanding of the cellular mechanisms and networks that enable the human body to function. Knowing the integrated functioning of the different organs, apparatus and control systems through which the living organism obtains and maintains homeostasis. Clear understanding of the mechanisms that, when abnormal, turn into pathological dysfunctions. Having participated to Physiology classes, students will achieve knowledge on the mechanisms governing the functioning of the various apparatuses of the body, also acquiring notions of anatomical organization and physiopathology.
General knowledge on the molecular basis of life, from the fundamental chemical properties of the substances, the structure and function of macromolecules involved in life processes, both at the cellular and extracellular level, the metabolic transformations of biomolecules necessary for the human body function. In addition, students will know the significance of the variations of the main metabolic pathways in various physiological and pathological contexts, particularly with regard to diseases of the myocardium and blood vessels.
The course aims to provide a preparation suitable for understanding the basic notions of modern cellular and molecular biology . At the end of the module, the student will acquire the basic notions on the structure and function of procaryotic and eucaryotic cells, as well as on the flow of genetic information. Learning these concepts will allow the student to understand and argue logically the mechanisms of transition from the genotype to the molecular and cellular phenotype, both in physiological and pathological conditions.
Lectures. Attendance is strongly recommended
Font lessons, with the support of slides and audiovisual tools. At the end of each lesson is given ample space to the comment of the topics covered.
Should teaching be carried out in mixed mode or remotely, it may be necessary to introduce changes with respect to previous statements, in line with the programme planned and outlined in the syllabus.
If the teaching will be given in a mixed or remote way, the necessary changes may be introduced with respect to what was previously stated, in order to respect the program envisaged and reported in the syllabus.
Information for students with disabilities and / or SLD:
To guarantee equal opportunities and in compliance with the laws in force, interested students can ask for a personal interview in order to plan any compensatory and / or dispensatory measures, based on the teaching objectives and specifications needs. It is also possible to contact the CInAP contact person in charge (Center for Active and Participatory Integration - Services for Disabilities and / or SLD).
Cell membranes Mechanisms of transport and ion channels
Nervous system General organizzation of the central, peripheral and vegetative nervous system. Properties of excitable membranes: potential of membrane and potential of action.
Muscles Organization of skeletal muscles. Excitation-Contraction Coupling, single muscle twitch and tetanus. Smooth muscle: generalities,
Synaptic transmission Neuromuscular and central synapses. Neurotransmtters.
Cardiovascular System Properties of cardiac muscle. Aspecific and specific myocardium. Mechanic and electrical cardiac cycles. Coronary circulation. Vascular system: caracteristics of blood and blood vessels. Physical factors affecting blood flow. Laminar and urbulent blood flow. Laplace's law applied to vessels. Capillary changes. Functions of veins. Control of heart rate and blood pressure.
Respiratory system Upper and lower airways. Mechanism of Breathing. Alveolar ventilation. Surfactant. Spirometry. Basic mechanism of gas exchanges among lungs, blood and tissues. Carriage of the respiratory gas in the blood.
Urinary system Kidney homeostatic functions; kidney mechanisms: glomerular filtration; tubular absorption and secretion. Renal regulation of water, electrolyte and pH balance.
Digestive system: Basic principles on motor,secretory and absorbent activities
As requested prerequisite, general knowledge on the structure and function of the main biological macromolecules and on cellular informational metabolism is mandatory.
The course will develop as follows:
1) Introduction to the course: the meaning of Biology and its fields of application;
2) Organic macromolecules of biological interest: glucids, lipids, proteins, nucleic acids;
3) Eucariotic and procariotic cell organization;
4) The cell membrane: structure and mechanisms of transport;
5) DNA, chromatin and chromosomes;
6) Structure and function of eucaryotic and procaryotic genes;
7) Transcription in eukaryotes and prokaryotes;
8) Translation in eukaryotes and prokaryotes;
9) DNA duplication in eukaryotes and prokaryotes;
10) Mitosis and Meiosis;
11) Point and chromosomal mutations;
12) Stem cells and iPSCs;
13) Oncogenes, tumour suppressor genes and cancer
Text 1. Biologia e Genetica. G. De Leo, S. Fasano, E. Ginelli. Ed. EdiSES
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