Academic Year 2020/2021 - 3° Year

ING-INF/01 - 9 CFU - 1° Semester

The course aims to provide basic knowledge and skills related to the use of semiconductor devices in CMOS and Bipolar technology in analog and digital circuits and the related analysis and design methodologies.

**Knowledge and understanding**. The student will deepen the role of electronics in modern applications and in anticipation of future ones. He will know the main circuit configurations that use diodes and transistors used in analog and digital electronics. He/her will know the analysis techniques and the first elements of design. He/her will know the main circuit performance parameters and a simulation and experimental characterization environment.

**Applied knowledge and understanding**. The student will be able to understand and analyze the performance of the main circuit configurations of analog and digital electronics. He will also be able to choose the most appropriate device and circuit configuration for solving elementary design problems. Finally, thanks to the laboratory activities, the student will improve his or her ability to work in groups and problem solving.

**Communication and Learning skills**. Upon completion of the course, the student is expected to acquire the ability to convey to his / her interlocutors, in a clear and complete way, the knowledge acquired and will also be able to rework the knowledge to extend it to situations not explicitly dealt with, also being able to learn independently.

The course includes lectures, numerical exercises, the simulator (CAD) and experimental characterization experiences, aimed at putting into practice, developing and consolidating the theoretical contents and the analysis and design techniques studied. Seminars will be organized by researchers and designers from companies operating in the microelectronics sector to provide an overview of the state of the art.

A Tutor will help during the lab activities.

Should teaching be carried out in mixed mode or completely remotely, it may be necessary to introduce changes with respect to previous statements, in line with the programme planned out and outlined in the syllabus.

**Introduction to Electronics:**A brief history of electronics. Classification of Electronic Signals. A/D and D/A Converters. Notational Conventions. Dependent sourced. Important Concepts from Circuit Theory (Kirchhoff’s lows, dividers, Thevenin and Norton Equivalents). Frequency Spectrum of Electronic Signals. Amplifiers. Example: FM receiver**Operational Amplifiers:**An Example of an Analog Electronic System. Amplification. Voltage Gain, Current Gain and Power Gain. The Decibel Scale. The Differential Amplifier. Differential Amplifier Voltage Transfer Characteristic. Differential Voltage Gain. Differential Amplifier Model. Ideal Operational Amplifier. *Assumptions for Ideal Operational Amplifier. *The Inverting Amplifier. *The Transresistance Amplifier. *The Noninverting Amplifier. *The Unity-Gain Buffer, or Voltage Follower. *The Summing Amplifier. *The Difference Amplifier. An active Low-Pass Filter. An Active High-Pass Filter. *The Integrator. *The Differentiator. Nonidealities: Common mode gain. CMRR. I/O resistances. Offset. Slew rate.**Solid-State Electronics**. Solid-State Electronic Materials. Covalent Bond Model. Intrinsic carrier concentration. Mass action. *Drift Currents and Mobility in Semiconductors. Velocity Saturation. Resistivity of Intrinsic Silicon. *Impurities in Semiconductors. Electron and Hole Concentrations in Doped Semiconductors. *Diffusion Currents. *Total Current. Energy Band Model.**Solid-state Diodes and Diode circuits:**Junction diode.The *i-v Characteristics of the Diode. *Diode Characteristics Under Reverse, Zero, and Forward Bias. Diode Temperature Coefficient. *Reverse Breakdown and Zener Diode. pn Junction Capacitance in Reverse Bias and Forward Bias. Dynamic Switching Behavior of the Diode. Large signal Model. Diode SPICE Model. *Diode Circuit Analysis. Load-Line Analysis. Analysis Using the Mathematical Model for the Diode (small signal resistance). *Constant Voltage Drop Model. Multiple-Diode Circuits. *Half-Wave Rectifier Circuits with R, C and RC load. Full-Wave Rectifier and Bridge Circuits. *Voltage regulator with Zener diode. Photo Diodes and Photodetectors. Schottky Barrier Diodes. Solar Cells. Light-Emitting Diodes**Field-effect Transistors:**Characteristics of the MOS Capacitor. Accumulation Region. Depletion Region. Inversion Region. The NMOS Transistor. *Qualitative i-v Behavior of the NMOS Transistor. *Triode Region Characteristics of the NMOS Transistor. On Resistance. Saturation of the i-v Characteristics. *Mathematical Model in the Saturation (Pinch-Off) Region Transconductance. Channel-Length Modulation. Body Effect. PMOS Transistors. MOSFET Circuit Symbols. NMOS Transistor Capacitances in the Triode Region. Capacitances in the Saturation Region. Capacitances in Cutoff. *MOSFET biasing (4 resistors network) and analysis. Modeling in SPICE.**Digital circuits**: Ideal Logic Gates. *Logic Level Definitions and Noise Margins. Logic Gate Design Goals. Dynamic Response of Logic Gates. *Rise Time and Fall Time. *Propagation Delay. *Power-Delay Product. Review of Boolean Algebra. CMOS logic circuits. *Static characteristics of the CMOS Inverter. CMOS Voltage Transfer Characteristics. *CMOS NOR and NAND Gates. Design of Complex Gates in CMOS. Cascade Buffers and Delay Model. Optimum Number of Stages. Bistable latch. *SR Flip-Flop. *JK Flip flop. Flip-Flop race condition. The D-Latch Using Transmission Gates. *Master-Slave Flip-Flop. Edge triggered Flip flop. Counters and registers. Random Access Memories (RAMs). *6-T cell. Dynamic RAMs. *1-T cell.**Small-signal Modeling and linear amplification:**The Transistor as an Amplifier. Coupling and Bypass Capacitors. Circuit Analysis Using dc and ac Equivalent Circuits. *Small-Signal Modeling of the Diode. *Small-Signal Models for Field-Effect Transistors. *Intrinsic Voltage Gain of the MOSFET. *The Common-Source Amplifier (Voltage Gain. I/O resistances). Power dissipation and signal swing. *Amplifiers classification. CS, CD, CG configurations. *CS with resistive degeneration. AC-coupled multi stage amplifiers.**Current Mirrors: ***DC analysis of MOS current mirrors. *Changing the MOS Mirror Ratio. Cascode current mirror.**Frequency response:***Frequency response of Amplifiers, Midband gain, Low and high cutoff frequencies (fL and fH). *Estimation of fL through the short-circuit time constant method for CS, CG, CD amplifier. *High-frequency MOSFET model. *Transition frequency, fT. Channel Length Dependence of fT. Analisi ad alta frequenza dell’amplificatore source comune. *L’effetto Miller. *High-Frequency C-S Amplifier Analysis. The Miller Effect. Common-Emitter and Common-Source Amplifier High-Frequency Response. *Estimation of fH through the open-circuit time constant method for CS.**Differential pair.***Differential anc common-mode signals. *DC Analysis of BJT emitter coupled pair. *Small signal analysis of differential gain, common-mode gain and CMRR for BJT and MOS differential pair.**Computer****simulations of electronic circuits:**LTSPICE**Invited****talks**: Talks and seminars given by experts from microelectronic industries.

**1. Jaeger-Blalock, Microelettronica Ed. Mc-Graw-Hill, V Edizione.**

2. Sedra - Smith, Circuiti per la Microelettronica, EDISES 2013.

3. Millman-Grabel-Terreni, Elettronica di Millman, Ed. Mc-Graw-Hill 2008.

4. LTSPICE Manual