Academic Year 2019/2020 - 2° Year - CONDENSED MATTER PHYSICS Curriculum and THEORETICAL PHYSICS Curriculum

FIS/03 - 6 CFU - 1° Semester

The course introduces concepts of advanced quantum mechanics (superpositions, entanglement, bipartite systems, open systems), as well as the theoretical technical background for the study of the quantum dynamics of electrons and photons, manipulated in **coherent** physical systems/architectures. This is of great interest for fundamental science, from the interpretation of quantum physics to quantum thermodynamics and gravity, but are also of current interest for applications in the emergent field of "**Quantum Technologies**" (quantum computation and communication, quantum control, sensing and metrology).

**Knowledge and understanding –**Knowledge of the main ideas and theoretical/numerical techniques for the representation of complex quantum system and the study of their dynamics. Knowledge of the working principles of state of the art physical systems.**Applying knowledge and understanding –**Ability in the application of basic theoretical techniques and approximate schemes for the analysis and the simulation of dynamical processes in quantum systems. Ability in familiarizing with new opporunities offered by Quantum Technologies.**Marking judgements**- Ability in developing personal interpretations of physical phenomena. Developing the ability in making choices concerning the education process and the tesis. Sviluppo della capacità di compiere scelte nel percorso didattico e di tesi. Capability in evaluating potentialities offered by Quantum Technologies for both post-doc and industrial job opporunities.**Abilità comunicative (communication skills) –**Competenze nella comunicazione nell’ambito delle tecnologie quantistiche, nei suoi vari risvolti interdisciplinari.**Capacità di apprendimento (learning skills) –**Acquisizione di strumenti conoscitivi per l'aggiornamento continuo delle conoscenze, nel settore della informazione quantistica, tramite l'accesso a laboratori e alla letteratura specializzata.**Communication skills –**Ability in communication in the field of Quantum Technologies, in the varoius interdisciplinary aspects.**Learning skills –**Acquiring skills allowing the continuous upgrade of the knowledge in the field, by accessing a research environment and specialized literature.

Main goals are:

- Learning basic conceptual and operational tools

(basic concepts of quantum mechanics for information processing and communication, both for representation and dynamics; main physical systems used to detect quantum coherent effects and to process quantum information, from solid state nanodevices to atomic and photonic architectures; basic examples of quantum protocols) - Know a bit about what’s going on in current fundamental and applied research
- Develop new skill and competencies

(overview of theoretical techniques; ability to explore the use of quantum mechanics in different physical contexts of Quantum Technologies; ability to judge the state of the art and relative progress; acquire a basis to decide they you want to work in this field and come

up with their own idea of how to do an interesting project)

The course is structured in three main parts: (1) representation of quantum systems (kinepatics) and elementary dynamics; (2) Bipartite systems: entanglement, measurement, open systems; (3) Special selected topics.

**Representation of quantum systems (12+2 h)**

Quantum bits, composite systems; physiscal systems (photons, nuclear spin, confined atoms, artificial atoms based on semiconductors/superconductors, cavities); algebra in Hilbert spaces and applications to quantum networks; examples; classical and quantum computation (seminar)**Quantum dynamics (12+2 h)**

Time evolution operator; pulsed dynamics; heisenberg and von Neumann equation and their phenomenological generalization to relaxation and dephasing; quantum systems in oscillatory fields; time-dependent unitary transformations (rotating frame, adiabatic frame, geometric phases)**Bipartite and multipartite syestems (6+2 h)**

Density matrix; quantum measurement and von Neumann model; applications (superdense coding, no-cloning theorem, cryptography, quantum teleportation) Entanglement; EPR paradox and Bell inequality (seminar).**Coherent nanosystems (4 h)**(two or three of the following topics)- NMR molecules in liquids; photons and atoms in cavities; artificial atoms and circuit QED; trapped ions and cold atoms; nanomechanical and nanoelectromechanical systems; topological excitations in condensed matter.
**Selected topic (2 h)**(seminar, one of the following topics)

New quantum technologies for measuremet and sensing; open quantum systems; introduction to quantum information; introduction to quantum thermodynamics; introduction to quantum control theory.

[1] M. Nielsen and I. Chuang. Quantum Computation and Quantum Information. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 2010.

[2] S. Haroche and J.M. Raimond, Exploring the Quantum : Atoms, Cavities and Photons, Oxford, 2006.

[3] G. Falci, Informazione quantistica: appunti del corso.

[4] G. Chen, D. A. Church, B.-G. Englert, C. Henkel, B. Rohwedder, M. O. Scully, and M. S. Zubairy. Quantum Computing Devices: Principles, Designs and Analysis. Chapman and Hall/CRC, 2007.

[5] C. P. Williams and S. H. Clearwater, Explorations in Quantum Computing, Springer Verlag, New York, 1998.

[6] G. Benenti, G. Casati, G. Strini, Principles of Quantum Computation and Information, voll. 1 e 2, World Scientific, 2004