The considered course is aimed at manifesting to the students the way to address different geological problems on a petrological perspective. In this respect, the origin of different types of rocks is generally linked with relevant geodynamic processes.
Classroom lesson each delivered in about two hours, three days per week during the first semester.
1) AN INTRODUCTION TO THE EXPERIMENTAL PETROLOGY– 2) ESSENTIALS ON THE EXPERIMENTAL PETROLOGY METHODS AND DEVICES– 3) ESSENTIALS ON PHASE DIAGRAMS– 4) ORIGIN OF BASALTIC MAGMA CONSTRAINED BY EXPERIMENTAL PETROLOGY RESULTS- PETROLOGY OF THE OCEANIC CRUST– 5) PETROLOGIC ASPECTS OF ABYSSAL HYDROTHERMAL SYSTEMS: INSIGHTS IN THE SERPENTINIZATION OF SEAFLOOR-EXPOSED MANTLE PERIDOTITES– 6) HYPOTHESES ON THE ORIGIN OF LARGE IGNEOUS PROVINCES– 7) LAYERED IGNEOUS INTRUSIONS– 8) THE TRACHYBASALT TREND AND THE DALY-GAP: A DIFFERENT VIEWPOINT – 9) PETROLOGY OF ANDESITES AND THE SUBDUCTION FACTORY– 10) OGRANITOIDS, COMMON ON EARTH, RARE IN OTHER ROCKY PLANETS- 10) ORIGIN OF CARBONATITIC AND LAMPROITIC MAGMAS– 11) THE DIATREMIC CLAN– 12) ESSENTIALS OF EXOPETROLOGY
1) Metamorphism and the aims of Metamorphic Petrology. Limits and agents of the metamorphic processes. Types of metamorphism. Classification of metamorphic rocks. The progressive nature of the metamorphism. Types of protolith. Index minerals. Metamorphic zones. Facies and facies metamorphic series. Chapters 21, 22, 25 Winter (2013)
2) Metamorphism and geodynamics. Examples and case studies: Scottish Highlands, Paired metamorphic belts (Japan), Cooma Metamorphic Complex (Australia), Calabria-Peloritani Orogen. Chapter 21 Winter (2013)
3) Metamorphic assemblages and metamorphic reactions. The phase rule in metamorphic systems. Graphic representation of metamorphic assemblages: chemografic diagrams (ACF, AKF, AFM) under various P-T conditions. Reaction mechanisms. Petrogenetic grids in the prograde and retrograde metamorphism of pelitic and basic protoliths. Chapters 24, 25, 26 Winter (2013)
4-5) Microstructures, metamorphic reactions and P-T-d evolution in the metamorphism of pelitic, basic and granitoid rocks. Sequences of metamorphic events. Deformation and recrystallization. Structures and microstructures in contact and orogenic metamorphism. Blastesis-deformation relationships. Replacement structures. Transition from magmatic to solid state flow in granitoid rocks (Par 5.11 Vernon). Chapter 23 Winter (2013); Chapters 3, 6 Vernon & Clarke (2008); Chapters 4-5 Vernon (2004).
6) Outline of conventional geothermobarometry. Evolution of geotermobarometric techniques. Thermodynamic database and calculation of phase equilibria: sections, projections and pseudosections. Modeling of P-T paths. X-ray maps. Image analysis techniques for the identification of equilibrium assemblages and of the effective reaction volume. Chapter 27 Winter (2013); Chapter 2 Vernon & Clarke (2008)
7) High-temperature metamorphism and crustal melting. Melting reactions. Volumes and compositions of the produced melts. Migmatites. Microstructures of anatectic rocks. Deformation of anatectic rocks. Melting stages, accumulation and migration of anatectic melts. Metatexites, diatexites and granitic plutons. Chapter 4 Vernon & Clarke (2008); Chapter 27 (Par 4) Winter (2013).
8) Petrology of granitoid rocks and their role in the evolution of the continental crust. Chapter 18 Winter (2013)
9) Metamorphic fluids and metasomatism. Nature and role of fluids in regional and contact metamorphism. Metasomatic processes. Types and examples of metasomatism: skarns, albitites, trondhjemites.Chapter 5 Vernon & Clarke (2008); Chapter 30 Winter (2013)
10) The time factor in the deformation and evolution of the continental crust: from blastesis-deformation relationships to the absolute dating of geological events. Analytical techniques and minerals of geochronological interest. Techniques of microstructural geochronology. Interpretation of metamorphic ages. Reconstruction of P-T-t paths. Chapter 23 (Par. 7) Winter (2013); Chapter 3 (Par. 3.7) Vernon & Clarke (2008).
Unpublished summary of classroom lectures (at: http://studium.unict.it/aof/index.php?option=com_browse&view=browse&catid=1857&parentid=1848)
Winter J.D. (2013) Principles of igneous and metamorphic petrology. - 2nd ed. Pearson.
Vernon, R. H., Clarke, G. L. (2008) Principles of metamorphic petrology. Cambridge Univrsity Press.
Barker J. (1998) Introduction to metamorphic textures and microstructures. Blackie USA, Chapman & Hall.
Vernon R.H. (2004) A practical guide to rock microstructure. (Cambridge University Press)