Academic Year 2018/2019 - 1° Year

CHIM/07 - 9 CFU - 1° Semester

Basic chemistry knowledge such as: nomenclature , atomic structure , chemical and chemical reaction formulas , physical states of matter , units of measure . Exponential or scientific notation . Rounding of numerical values . Real numbers . Operations with real numbers . Rational and real exponent power . Logarithm of a positive real number .

Lectures, exercises in the classroom, individual study

1. * Nature of the subject. The matter and the states of aggregation. Homogeneous and heterogeneous systems. Stages and their separations. Elements and chemical compounds. Atoms and molecules. Ponderal laws (Lavoisier, Proust, Dalton). Volumetric laws (Gay-Lussac, Avogadro). Determination of atomic weight (Cannizzaro rule) and molecular weight (gaseous density). Avogadro number. Mole.

2. * Structure of matter. Description of the atom. Protons, neutrons and electrons. Atomic number and mass number. Atomic mass unit. Isotopes. Mass defect. Thomson's experiment. Atomic model of Thomson. Millikan experiment. Rutherford experiment. Atomic model of Rutherford. Electromagnetic radiation. Emission spectrum of the black body. Photoelectric effect. Emission spectrum of the hydrogen atom. Bohr theory. Report by De Broglie. Uncertainty principle of Heisenberg. Wave mechanics. Schrödinger equation. Quantum numbers and energy levels. Orbital. Polyelectronic atoms. Principle of Pauli. Hund rule. Principle of Aufbau. Periodic table. Periodic properties (ionization energy, electronic affinity, atomic radius, electronegativity, metallic character).

3. * Chemical bond. Electron sharing. Covalent bond. Octet rule. Distance and bonding energy. Homeopolar and heteropolar link. Dative tie. Dipoles. Bonds π and s. Hybridization. Bonding angles. VSEPR. Molecular geometry. Resonance. Ionic bond. MO-LCAO theory. Molecular orbitals of diatomic molecules of the second period. Metal tie. Orbitals of Bloch. Weak links. Hydrogen bond.

4. * Chemical compounds and nomenclature. Valence and oxidation number. Oxidation and reduction. Hydrides. Hydrogen acids. Oxides. Peroxides. Hydroxides. Oxyacids. Salts. Chemical equation. Reactions. Redox reactions. Disruption reactions. Combustion reactions. Ponderal relationships. Limiting reagent rule. Calculation examples. Types of formulas (minimum, brute, structure and steric formula). Elementary analysis. Calculation examples.

5. * Thermodynamics. Thermodynamic system. Types of systems. Extensive and intensive variables. Status functions. Work. Heat. Power. Thermal capacity. Work. First principle of thermodynamics. Internal energy and enthalpy. Termochimica. Law of Hess. Second principle of thermodynamics. Heat conversion in work. Entropy. Free energy. Spontaneity of chemical reactions. Third principle of thermodynamics.

6. * States of aggregation of the matter. The gaseous state. Ideal gas and perfect gas. Boyle's law. Law of Gay Lussac. Law of Charles. Avogadro's law. Equations of state of ideal gases. Determination of the molecular weight of a gas. Gaseous diffusion. Partial pressures. Molar heat of gases. Maxwell-Boltzmann speed distribution. Real gases. Van der Waals equation. Liquefaction of gases. Andrews diagram. Numerical exercises. The liquid state. Surface tension. Vapor pressure. Clausius-Clapeyron equation. The solid state. Crystalline and amorphous solids. Isotropy and anisotropy. Primitive cells. Bravais lattices. X-ray diffraction and Bragg equation. Polymorphism. Ionic solids. Covalent solids. Molecular solid. Metallic solids.

7. * State steps and heterogeneous equilibria. State steps: fusion, evaporation, sublimation. Clausius-Clapeyron equation. Variance. Phase rule. State diagrams. One-component systems: water, sulfur, carbon dioxide. Systems with eutectic point.

8. * Status of solution. Types of solution. Solubility of a species. Concentration and way of expressing it. Solute-solvent interaction: ideal and real solutions. Rault law. Relationships between the composition of a mixture of two liquids and that of its vapor. Systems with maximum and minimum azeotrope. Dilute solutions of non-volatile solutes. Colligative properties. Lowering the vapor pressure. Cryoscopic lowering. Ebullioscopic elevation. Osmotic pressure. Numerical exercises.

9. * Chemical equilibria. Law of chemical equilibrium. Le Chatelier's principle. Relationship between free energy and equilibrium constant. Balance constant (Kp and Kc). Relationships between equilibrium constants. Homogeneous and heterogeneous equilibria. Gaseous equilibria. Influence of pressure, temperature and concentration on equilibrium conditions.

10. * Electrolyte solutions. Electrolytic dissociation. Strong and weak electrolytes. Degree of dissociation. Coefficient of Van't Hoff. Conductance. Equivalent conductance. Law of independent ion migration. Acids and bases. Theories of Arrhenius, Bronsted-Lowry and Lewis. Strength of acids and bases. Ionic product of water. Relationship between Ka and Kb. Definition of pH. Calculation of the pH of solution of acids, bases and salts. Buffer solutions. PH indicators. Acid-base titrations. Ampholytic. Solubility equilibria. Solubility product. Ion to common.

11. * Electrochemistry. Oxidation-reduction reactions: electronic ion method. Electrode potentials. Nernst's equation. Standard potential and its measure. Galvanic batteries. Concentration batteries. Electrochemical series of elements. Chemical stacks. Forecasts of redox reactions. Balance constant. Determination of pH, KPS and degree of dissociation. Free reaction energy. Numerical exercises.

12. * Electrolysis. Decomposition voltage. Overvoltage. Faraday laws and numerical exercises. Law of electrochemical equivalents. Electrolysis of molten salts. Water electrolysis. Electrolysis of aqueous solutions. Industrial electrolytic processes. Accumulators. Corrosion. Passivation.

13. * Chemical kinetics. Reaction speed. Kinetic law. Molecularity. Reaction order: reactions of the 1st and 2nd order. Arrhenius equation. Influence of temperature. Activation energy. Catalysts. Kinetic derivation of the equilibrium constant. Chain reactions.

* obligatory skills

1. R. Chang – K. Goldsby: “Fondamenti di Chimica Generale”, McGrawHill Education.

2. P. Atkins – L. Jones: “Fondamenti di Chimica generale”, Zanichelli.

3. P. Atkins - L. Jones - L. Laverman: Principi di Chimica, quarta edizione italiana, Zanichelli.

4. Pietro Tagliatesta, CHIMICA GENERALE E INORGANICA, edi-ermes.