Academic Year 2018/2019 - 3° Year

ING-INF/01 - 9 CFU - 1° Semester

The course is aimed at providing the students with the knowledge on basic electron devices and analog and digital circuits in CMOS technology. Speciﬁcally, fabrication tecnologies and operating principles of the most common electron devices will be descrbed and the most basic analog and digital topologies will be discussed with enphasis on the techniques of analysis and when possible also on the design criteria. Circuits based on the Operational Ampliﬁer will be also introduced. Besides, exercitations and computer simulations will be oﬀered and aimed at consolidating of theoretical topics and the design techniques discussed.

At the end of the course the student will be aware of the main electronic devices and their ﬁeld of application and will be able to analyze and design simple analog and digital circuits.

The course is based on both frontal lessons and exercitations (by hand and with the aid of computer simulator) aimed at developing, consolidating and putting in practice the theoretical topics and the analysis and design techniques developed. Seminars held by experienced designers and researchers form the industries will be also organized.

- I
**ntroduction to Electronics:**A brief history of electronics. Classiﬁcation of Electronic Signals. A/D and D/A Converters. Notational Conventions. Dependent sourced. Important Concepts from Circuit Theory (Kirchhoﬀ’s lows, dividers, Thevenin and Norton Equivalents). Frequency Spectrum of Electronic Signals. Ampliﬁers. Example: FM receiver. **Operational Ampliﬁers:**An Example of an Analog Electronic System. Ampliﬁcation. Voltage Gain, Current Gain and Power Gain. The Decibel Scale. The Diﬀerential Ampliﬁer. Diﬀerential Ampliﬁer Voltage Transfer Characteristic. Diﬀerential Voltage Gain. Diﬀerential Ampliﬁer Model. Ideal Operational Ampliﬁer. *Assumptions for Ideal Operational Ampliﬁer. *The Inverting Ampliﬁer. *The Transresistance Ampliﬁer. *The Noninverting Ampliﬁer. *The Unity-Gain Buﬀer, or Voltage Follower. *The Summing Ampliﬁer. *The Diﬀerence Ampliﬁer. *The Integrator. *The Diﬀerentiator. Nonidealities: Common mode gain. CMRR. I/O resistances. Oﬀset. Slew rate.**Solid-State Electronics:**Solid-State Electronic Materials. Covalent Bond Model. Intrinsic carrier. concentration. Mass action. *Drift Currents and Mobility in Semiconductors. Velocity Saturation. Resistivity of Intrinsic Silicon. *Impurities in Semiconductors. Electron and Hole Concentrations in Doped Semiconductors. *Diﬀusion Currents. *Total Current. Energy Band Model.**Solid-state Diodes and Diode circuits:**Junction diode.The *i-v Characteristics of the Diode. *Diode Characteristics Under Reverse, Zero, and Forward Bias. Diode Temperature Coeﬃcient. *Reverse Breakdown and Zener Diode. pn Junction Capacitance in Reverse Bias and Forward Bias. Dynamic Switching Behavior of the Diode. Large signal Model. Diode SPICE Model. *Diode Circuit Analysis. Load-Line Analysis. Analysis Using the Mathematical Model for the Diode (small signal resistance). *Constant Voltage Drop Model. Multiple-Diode Circuits. *Half-Wave Rectiﬁer Circuits with R, C and RC load. Full-Wave Rectiﬁer and Bridge Circuits. *Voltage regulator with Zener diode. Photo Diodes and Photodetectors. Schottky Barrier Diodes. Solar Cells. Light-Emitting Diodes.**Field-eﬀect Transistors:**Characteristics of the MOS Capacitor. Accumulation Region. Depletion. Region. Inversion Region. The NMOS Transistor. *Qualitative i-v Behavior of the NMOS Transistor. *Triode Region Characteristics of the NMOS Transistor. On Resistance. Saturation of the i-v Characteristics. *Mathematical Model in the Saturation (Pinch-Oﬀ) Region Transconductance. Channel-Length Modulation. Body Eﬀect. PMOS Transistors. MOSFET Circuit Symbols. NMOS Transistor Capacitances in the Triode Region. Capacitances in the Saturation Region. Capacitances in Cutoﬀ. *MOSFET biasing (4 resistors network) and analysis. Modeling in SPICE.**Digital circuits:**Ideal Logic Gates. *Logic Level Deﬁnitions and Noise Margins. Logic Gate Design. Goals. Dynamic Response of Logic Gates. *Rise Time and Fall Time. *Propagation Delay. *Power-Delay Product. Review of Boolean Algebra. CMOS logic circuits. *Static characteristics of the CMOS Inverter. CMOS Voltage Transfer Characteristics. *CMOS NOR and NAND Gates. Design of Complex Gates in CMOS. Cascade Buﬀers and Delay Model. Optimum Number of Stages. Bistable latch. *SR Flip-Flop. *JK Flip ﬂop. Flip-Flop race condition. The D-Latch using Transmission Gates. *MasterSlave Flip-Flop. Edge triggered Flip ﬂop. Counters and registers. Random Access Memories (RAMs). *6-T cell. Dynamic RAMs. *1-T cell.**Small-signal Modeling and linear ampliﬁcation:**The Transistor as an Ampliﬁer. Coupling and Bypass Capacitors. Circuit Analysis Using dc and ac Equivalent Circuits. *Small-Signal Modeling of the Diode. *Small-Signal Models for Field-Eﬀect Transistors. *Intrinsic Voltage Gain of the MOSFET. *The Common-Source Ampliﬁer (Voltage Gain. I/O resistances). Power dissipation and signal swing. *Ampliﬁers classiﬁcation. CS, CD, CG conﬁgurations. *CS with resistive degeneration. AC-coupled multi stage ampliﬁers.**Current Mirrors:***DC analysis of MOS current mirrors. *Changing the MOS Mirror Ratio. Cascode current mirror.**Frequency response:***Frequency response of Ampliﬁers, Midband gain, Low and high cutoﬀ frequencies (*f*_{L}and*f*_{H}). *Estimation of*f*_{L}through the short-circuit time constant method for CS, CG, CD ampliﬁer. *High-frequency MOSFET model. *Transition frequency,*f*_{T}. Channel Length Dependence of*f*_{T}. *High-Frequency C-S Ampliﬁer Analysis. The Miller Eﬀect. Common-Emitter and Common-Source Ampliﬁer High-Frequency Response. *Estimation of*f*_{H}through the open-circuit time constant method for CS.**Computer simulations of electronic circuits:**LTSPICE simutator**Invited talks:**Talks and seminars given by experts from microelectronic industries.

**1. Jaeger-Blalock, Microelettronica Ed. Mc-Graw-Hill, V Edizione. ** (with Connect for on-line access)

2. Sedra - Smith, Circuiti per la Microelettronica, EDISES 2013.

3. Millman-Grabel-Terreni, Elettronica di Millman, Ed. Mc-Graw-Hill 2008.

4. Giustolisi-Palumbo, Introduzione ai dispositivi elettronici, Franco Angeli, 2005.

5. Manuale SPICE