BIO/17 - 7 CFU - 1° Semester

Teaching Staff


Learning Objectives

The purpose of Histology teaching is to provide the student with a basic cytological and histological culture for the comprehension of the general organization of cells, their specializations and interactions to fulfill specific functions of tissues, with particular attention to the hard and soft tissues of the oral cavity and of stomatognatic apparatus.

The purpose of Embryology teaching is to provide the student with a general culture on human embryology trough a detailed description of the various phases of human development, from the zygote (fertilization) to the embryo (embryogenesis) and to the fetus (organogenesis) until at birth, with particular reference to the development of the stomatognathic apparatus

Course Structure


Detailed Course Content

Methods of study in cytology and histology
- Outline the general organization of the eukaryotic cell and the main chemical constituents of cells and tissues
- Differentiation of proliferation, apoptosis, intercellular signals


Aggregation cellular tissues, organs and systems. The renewal of tissues. Stem cells and kinetics of cell populations - EPITHELIAL TISSUES: structural classification, embryological and functional epithelia a) coating epithelia: structure and ultrastructure, classification, function and location b) exocrine and endocrine glandular epithelia: morpho-functional classification, histological organization c) coating epithelium and glands of the oral cavity - CONNECTIVE TISSUES: embryonic derivation, general characteristics and classification a) Connective tissue prope: structural and functional characteristics b) Adipose tissue: structural and functional characteristics c) Cartilage: structural and functional characteristics, the cartilage matrix, types of cartilage, histogenesis of cartilage, perichondrium d) Bone tissue: cells and intercellular substance, bone lamellae and lamellar systems, compact and spongy bone, periosteum and endostio, ossification, growth and bone remodeling, bone metabolic functions e) Tooth and oral cavity: morpho-functional dental tissues: dentin, cement, enamel, pulp, periodontal ligament and alveolar bone, histological organization of the gums, mouth and glands f) Blood: composition and function; plasma corpuscular elements, hematopoiesis - MUSCLE TISSUES: embryonic derivation, general characteristics and classification a) Skeletal muscle: structural and ultrastructural organization, the molecular basis of muscle contraction, control contraction of skeletal muscle histophysiology b) Cardiac muscle tissue: structural organization and ultrastructural c) Smooth muscle - NERVOUS TISSUE: embryonic derivation, classification, structure and function of: Neurons, glia cells, nerve fibers, synapses


Gametogenesis: the structure of the ovary and testis, meiosis, gametogenesis male and female, hormonal control of oogenesis and spermatogenesis - Fertilization: modification of gametes; histophysiology fertilization, zygote - First week of Development: cleavage, morula, blastocyst, trophoblast and embryoblast - Second Week of Development: implant; bilaminar disc, evolution of the trophoblast - Third and fourth week of development: development of the mesoderm, notochord, the three germ layers and their derivatives; defining the shape of the body - Annexes embryonic - Derivatives of the germ layers: - ECTODERM: lining epithelium, neural tube and brain vesicles - ENDODERM: primitive gut, intestines and bowel anterior pharyngeal: grooves, pockets and pharyngeal arches; development of the salivary glands - MESODERM: paraxial mesoderm: somites and their derivatives - Development of the stomatognathic system: neurocranium and splanchnocranium - Histogenesis of the tooth: the dental lamina, dental buds, the stadium goblet and a bell; origin of dentin, pulp and enamel; formation of crown and root; growth factors in the development of tooth types of dentition and dental eruption - Development of the cardiovascular system - Development of the respiratory system

Textbook Information

Histology (by choice):
1. P. Rosati- R. Colombo - N. Maraldi - ISTOLOGIA 5a Ed. - Edi-Ermes
2. V. Monesi - ISTOLOGIA 7a Ed. - Piccin

Embryology (by choice):

3. Moore – Persaud – Torchia - LO SVILUPPO PRENATALE DELL’UOMO 10° ed. - EDRA

4. De Felici-Boitani - EMBRIOLOGIA UMANA 2a Ed. - I ristampa - PICCIN

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