Ability to describe and develop models of simple physical phenomena through the scientific method. Knowledge of the basic principles of Physics and their main applications to the biomedical field, focusing on topics like geometric and physical optics. Ability to make numerical estimations of physical quantities, to identify and solve science problems in phenomena of interest to orthoptists.
Classroom-taught lessons by the use of interactive power point presentations (with images, videos and animations).
Exercises in groups or supervised by the teacher.
1.Brief introduction to epistemology of knowledge
2. Scientific use
3. Types of measurement scales: nominal, ordinal, interval and ratio scales
4. Representation of data in graphs and tables
5. Central indicators, variability indicators, asymmetry and kurtosis
6. Probability, sum and product principle
7. Probability application
8. Diagnostic tests: sensitivity, specificity, predictive values
9. Relative risk and odds ratio
10. Probabiloity distributions: binomial, Poisson and normal
11. Standardized Gaussian curve
12. Inference: central limit theorem ,sample distribution of the mean and standard error
13. Confidence interval for the mean and variance
14. Hypothesis test: null and alternative hypotheses
15. Significance tests between two groups: Sudent t test for dependent and independent groups
16. Contingency tables and chi square test
1) Oscillations and waves
Waves, simple harmonic motion, damped and forced oscillations, classification of waves, the linear wave equation, ray representation and wave fronts, Huygens' principle, waves superposition, reflection and transmission, light dispersion, waves in interference, beats, diffraction, polarized light.
2) Light and Optics
Electromagnetic waves, the spectrum of electromagnetic waves, the nature of light, the ray optics, wave under reflection, waves under refraction, total internal refraction, optical fibers and their applications (endoscopy), laser light and its application in medicine, prism and its applications in optometry, images formed by refraction, thin lenses, lens aberrations, images formed by mirrors.
3) Optical applications in biology and medicine
Simple and compound microscope, the eye, eye reference axes and point, distance evaluation, visual acuity, visual defects, color vision.
4) Sound waves
Propagation of sound waves, intensity of sound waves, ultrasound, Doppler flowmetry, ultrasound images and ultrasound modality to record images.
5) Radiations in biology and medicine
The atomic nucleus, radioactive isotopes, the nuclear decay, ionizing radiation and interaction of radiation with matter, optical coherence tomography (OCT), radiation biological effects, radiation protection and dosimetry, hadron therapy.
Colton T (1991) Statistica Medica. Piccin: Padova.
Armitage P, Berry G (1996) Statistica Medica - Metodi statistici per la ricerca in medicina. McGraw-Hill Libri Italia srl: Milano
M. R. Costanzo, (2018). “Statistica sperimentale per le professioni sanitarie”, Createspace by Amazon
1) Scannicchio D. : Fisica Biomedica, Ed. Edises – Napoli
2) Giancoli D.C.: Fisica. Principi e applicazioni, Casa Editrice Ambrosiana – Milano
3) Serwey R.A. e Jewett J.W.: Principi di Fisica, Ed. Edises – Napoli