The aim of the professional training is to show the daily management of a Department of Orthopedics and Traumatology.
- To have depth knowledge regarding: sources and methods for health data collection, epidemiological methods for their analysis and interpretation, causes of disability and death, health determinants and risk factors in the lifestyle, health determinants and environmental risk factors, methods for the prevention of chronic diseases, mode of occurrence and spread of infections, interventions on individuals and on communities for their prevention, principles and application of preventive medicine in the community, principles and methods of communication applied to health information and health education.
- To present themselves as authoritative interlocutors on health promotion and disease prevention issues, in dealing with individuals, with health administrators and the community.
- To evaluate epidemiological data and know the use for the purposes of health promotion and disease prevention in individuals and in the community, to collaborate with the health services in the epidemiological surveillance and in the programs of health promotion and disease prevention, recognizing health problems of the community and to collaborate to solve them, to identify and to collaborate to remove the causes and factors of diseases present in the behavior and environment, making accurate information on the determinants of health and disease regarding lifestyle factors and physical and social environment, educate, as part of their professional activities, to behaviors that promote health and prevent disease and disability due to microbial, chemical and physical agents, accident.
- to know the health organization at international, European and national level.
-to know skills and managerial activities.
- to know the principles and applications of health economics for the purpose of choices in health planning
The student, supervised from a tutor, will have access to:
- The ward of orthopedic and traumatological patients;
- The casting room, where the main types of immobilization and the management of small traumas will be shown;
- The out-patients, where the main orthopedic and traumatological diseases are treated and the patients already undergone surgical treatment are followed-up.
Principles of demography and health statistics. Sources of demographic and epidemiological data. Demographic indicators. Indicators of mortality and morbidity. Indicators of quality of life.
Principles of epidemiological methodology. The measures in epidemiology. The epidemiological studies: descriptive epidemiology; analytical epidemiology; experimental epidemiology. The causal relationship in epidemiology. Risk assessment. Systematic reviews and meta-analysis. The evidence-based medicine.
Principles of epidemiology of infectious diseases. Mode of transmission of infection. The chains of contagion. The natural course of infection.
General principles of the epidemiology of chronic diseases and disabilities. The necessary causes and the sufficient causes. Risk factors and protective factors. Causes and factors of the physical environment and of the social environment. Lifestyles and health. Frequency of chronic diseases and other harmful events in the population.
Methodology for the prevention and health promotion. Objectives and methods of prevention (primary, secondary and tertiary prevention).
The prevention of infectious diseases. Primary prevention of infection. Breaking the chains of transmission. Interventions for the discovery and inactivation of the sources of infection. Active and passive immunoprophylaxis. Chemoprophylaxis. Secondary prevention of infections.
Prevention of chronic diseases and of disabilities. Primary, secondary and tertiary prevention.
Principles of health education. Health and health promotion. Methods and models of communication. Strategies for health promotion. Health promotion in the Ottawa Charter.
Epidemiology and prevention of major infectious diseases.
Surveillance systems at European level. The networks and activities of the ECDC (European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control).
Epidemiology and prevention of major chronic diseases. Cardiovascular diseases, malignant tumors, diabetes, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.
Health promotion and disease prevention at different stages of life. Preconception, prenatal and neonatal prevention. Health needs in children and adolescents. Health needs in adulthood. Promotion of health in the elderly.
Hygiene of food and of nutrition. Food hygiene. Food and health related issues. Microbial contamination. Cleaning and preservation of foods. Food safety.
Environment and health. Environmental factors as determinants of health and disease. The environmental pollution and its effects on health. Water and its features. Water intended for human consumption, treatment and distribution of water. Mineral waters. Use of water for recreational purposes. The domestic, agricultural and industrial wastewater. Air pollution; the effects of air pollutants on health and environment. The medical waste and domestic solid wastes. Electromagnetic pollution. Risk factors and prevention in the areas of life and work.
Economics and health organization Principles of health economics. The basic principles of economics. The elements of the economic evaluation. Economic evaluation techniques. Health organization at international and European level. The National Health Service in Italy: the central, regional and local levels. The health planning. The national health plan and the regional health plans. The health management.
Sessa-Villani. Ortopedia e Traumatologia. Monduzzi Editore.
1)Barbuti S., Fara G.M., Giammanco G. – Igiene, medicina di comunità e sanità pubblica. Edizione EDISES 2014
2)Gilli G. Professione igienista Manuale dell'igiene ambientale e territoriale. Casa Editrice Ambrosiana
3)Vitale F, Zagra M. Igiene, epidemiologia e organizzazione sanitaria orientate per problemi. Editore: Elsevier - Masson
4)Faggiano F, Donato F, Barbone F. Manuale di Epidemiologia per la Sanità Pubblica. Centro Scientifico Editore