Knowledge of the macroscopic, microscopic and topographical anatomy of the main systems and systems of the human body.
General notions on Human Anatomy and its methods of investigation. Subdivision of the human body in its various parts and its cavities; orientation of organs in space and symmetry planes; terms of position and movement. Concept of organ and apparatus.
The student must demonstrate to understand the structural organization of the human body, from the macroscopic to the microscopic level and the topographical relationships among the structures, correlating them with the anatomical structure and function, so as to provide a rational basis on which to base their practical activity.
The course aims to provide students with basic knowledge of human Physiology such as the functioning of the various organs and apparatus of the human body. At the end of the course, students will have to prove both to know the basic principles that regulate normal and integrate functions among different human organs, as to have a good proficiency of general and more specific scientific terms.
Frontal teaching as the main teaching method with practical theoretical exercises on animal organs, didactic laboratory exercises with plastic models and virtual exercises with the Anatomage (virtual dissection table).
1. General: anatomical terms, axes and planes of the human body, hollow organs and full organs, notions of Histology and Microscopic Anatomy (*)
2. Generalities of the Tegumentary apparatus (*)
3. Locomotive system (*)
Generalities on the axile and appendicular skeleton; shape of the bones.
Overview and classification of joints: synartrosis and diarthrosis.
Skeleton of the head:
neurocranium and splancnocranium.
Skeleton of the trunk:
spine, related joints; ribs and sternum, cost-vertebral and chondro-sternal joints; the chest as a whole.
Skeleton of the limbs:
scapula and clavicle and related joints; humerus and scapulohumeral joint;
radius, ulna, elbow joint, distal radio-ulnar joint;
skeleton of the hand and related joints;
Hip bone, pelvis as a whole;
femur, coxo-femoral joint;
tibia, fibula, patella, knee joint, tibio-fibular joint;
skeleton of the foot and its joints.
Generalities on the muscles, tendons and aponeuroses, fascias, mucous bags.
Furious muscles of the head and neck.
generality of the muscles of the head;
chest muscles: thoraco-appendicular and intrinsic of the thorax, muscle diaphragm;
back muscles: spino-appendiculars and generalities on spinal-rib and spinal-dorsal muscles;
muscles of the abdomen: anterolateral and dorsal abdominal muscles;
muscles of the upper limb: muscles of the shoulder, arm, forearm, hand;
lower limb muscles: muscles of the hip, thigh, leg and foot.
4. Cardiovascular system (*)
General information on the blood and lymphatic system.
Heart: external and internal morphology, relationships, structure, fibrous skeleton of the heart, musculature of the atria and ventricles, apparatus of conduction of cardiac excitations; vessels and nerves of the heart.
General information on organs and hematopoietic tissues: bone marrow, spleen, lymph nodes and thymus.
Arteries of the small circulation: pulmonary arteries.
Veins of the small circulation: pulmonary veins.
Arteries of the general circulation: aorta artery and its segments; branches of the aorta.
Veins of the general circulation: veins of the heart; system of the superior vena cava and inferior vena cava; azigos vein system.
5. Respiratory system (*)
External and internal nose, larynx, trachea, main bronchi and their ramifications, lungs, alveolus structure.
6. Digestive System (*)
Pharynx, esophagus, stomach, small intestine (duodenum and mesenteric intestine), large intestine (cecum, colon and rectum); liver and pancreas
7. Urinary apparatus (*)
Kidneys, urinary excretory routes (calyxes, pelvis, ureter), bladder, male and female urethra.
8. Outline of the endocrine system
9. Overview of male and female genital apparatus (*)
Testes, sperm pathways (straight tubules, testis network, epididymis, deferent conduit, seminal vesicles, ejaculatory ducts); genital glands attached to the male urethra (prostate, bulb-urethral glands)
Ovaries, uterine trumpets, uterus and vagina
10. General Central and Peripheral Nervous System.
11. Hints of meaning:
Eye, general information on the ocular globe.
Ear, generality and division in: external, middle and internal ear.
Cell membranes Mechanisms of transport and ion channels
Nervous system General organizzation of the central, peripheral and vegetative nervous system. Properties of excitable membranes: potential of membrane and potential of action. Classification of nerve fibres.
Muscles Organization of skeletal muscles. Excitation-Contraction Coupling, single muscle twitch and tetanus. Muscle metabolism. Motor unit. Smooth muscle: generalities,
Synaptic transmission Neuromuscular and central synapses. Neurotransmtters.
Sensorial receptors. Proprioceptive and exteroceptive sensibility.
Spinal cord: mono- and polisynaptic reflex activity. Shock spinale
Function of brain stem, cerebellum, basal ganglia and cerebral cortex
Cardiovascular System Properties of cardiac muscle. Aspecific and specific myocardium. Mechanic and electrical cardiac cycles. Coronary circulation. Vascular system: caracteristics of blood and blood vessels. Physical factors affecting blood flow. Laminar and urbulent blood flow. Laplace's law applied to vessels. Capillary changes. Functions of veins. Control of heart rate and blood pressure.
Respiratory system Upper and lower airways. Mechanism of Breathing. Alveolar ventilation. Surfactant. Spirometry. Basic mechanism of gas exchanges among lungs, blood and tissues. Carriage of the respiratory gas in the blood.
Urinary system Kidney homeostatic functions; kidney mechanisms: glomerular filtration; tubular absorption and secretion. Renal regulation of water, electrolyte and pH balance.
Digestive system: Basic principles on motor,secretory and absorbent activities
1) “FISIOLOGIA DELL’UOMO” a cura di F. Conti Casa Editrice Edi- Ermes
2) GANONG “FISIOLOGIA MEDICA” Casa Editrice Piccin
3) L.S. COSTANZO "FISIOLOGIA" Casa Editrice Edra
The student can choose any updated book on Human Physiology as long as in the examination he proves to have the knowledge required to pass the test