12 CFU - 1° Semester

**MODULO 1***To enable students to become conversant with issues concerning equilibria in solution**(acid-base, precipitation, complexation, redox).**Concepts acquired from this Module will then be used in the Laboratory Module.***MODULO 2**To enable students to use autonomously the concepts acquired during the theoretical course (Module 1).

**MODULO 1**Lectures associated to the analysis of numerical problems. Problems are presented and illustrated by the teacher and sometimes by the students themselves upon request.

**MODULO 2**Lectures associated to the analysis of numerical problems. Problems are presented and illustrated by the teacher and sometimes by the students themselves upon request.

**MODULO 1**Aim of the Course. Classification of the methods of analysis. Concentration units. Numerical examples.

Solution Equilibria. General principles. Gibbs energy and equilibrium constants. Factors influencing equilibrium constants; temperature, solvent, ionic strength. Activity and activity coefficients. Debye-Huckel's Law. Numerical examples. Acid-base equilibria. Strength of an acid. Mass, charge and proton balance equations. pH. Rigorous definition. Calculation of the pH of strong acids: rigorous equation and approximations. Approximation criterion. Numerical examples. Weak acids/bases. Calculation of the pH of weak bases: rigorous equation and approximations. Numerical examples. Mono- and two-color indicators: rigorous equations. Numerical examples.

Polyprotic acids: rigorous and approximate equations. Acid mixtures. Ampholytes. Distribution diagrams. Titration curves. Strong base with a strong acid, weak acid with a strong base, polyprotic acids. Numerical examples. Buffer solutions. Buffering capacity: rigorous equation. Numerical examples.

Precipitation equilibria. Solubility and solubility product. Factors influencing electrolyte solubility: temperature, solvent and ionic strength. Effect of a common ion, pH and formation of complexes. Titrations based on the formation of a precipitate. Error at the end point: rigorous equation. Numerical examples.

Complexation equilibria. Degree of formation. pH effect on complexation equilibria. Conditional constant. Metallochromic indicators. Choice of operational conditions. Complexometric titrations. Numerical examples.

Data treatment: outline. Experimental errors. Bias and random errors. Precision and accuracy. Sampling. Sample description. Position and dispersion parameters. Binomial distribution, Poisson distribution, normal distribution. Reduced normal. Main tests (Student test, F-test, χ2, Dixon’s test). Significant figure. Error propagation. Numerical examples.

This Module requires approximately 48 hrs, while the second Module requires 72 hrs; the total working time goes up since Students often ask for extra time for exercises outside the scheduled hours.

**Please note: All the above arguments are deemed indispensable.****MODULO 2**Laboratory. Choice of the analytical method. Instrumentation, precision, sensitivity. Result report.

Gravimetric analysis. Analysis through precipitation. Precipitate formation. Nickel determination by DMG.

Titrations: general principles. Preparation of standard solutions. Primary standards. Standardization procedure.

Acid-Base titrations. Na

_{2}B_{4}O_{7}.10H_{2}O in acidimetric titrations. Determination of the titre of acids/bases commonly employed in a laboratory.Precipitation titrations. Argentometry. Chloride determination according to Mohr and Fajans. Chloride/Carbonate separation

Complexometric titrations. EDTA titrations. Determination of Cu

^{2+}.Redox titrations. Permanganometry. Determination of Fe

^{2+}and H_{2}O_{2}. Iodometry. Determination of Cu^{2+}.This Module is expected to last for 72hrs. This does not include exercises upon student request, provided only if a facility is available.

**MODULO 1**1.

**Kolthoff, Sandell, Meehan e Bruckenstein - Analisi Chimica Quantitativa. Vol. 1 e Vol. 2, Piccin Editore.**2.

**E. De Simoni - Chimica Analitica, CUL (Bologna).**3.

**Skoog & West - Chimica Analitica. S.E.S.****4.****D. H. Harris - Chimica Analitica quantitativa, Zanichelli.****5.****Freiser e Fernando - Gli equilibri ionici della Chimica Analitica. Piccin Editore.****6.****J. N. Butler - Ionic Equilibrium: Solubility and pH Calculations, Wiley****MODULO 2**Kolthoff, Sandell, Meehan e Bruckenstein - Analisi Chimica Quantitativa. Vol. 1 e Vol. 2, Piccin Editore.

Vogel - Analisi Chimica Quantitativa. Vol. 1 e Vol. 2, J. H. Jeffery, J. Bassett, J. Mendham, R. C. Denney Editori, CEA

Freiser e Fernando - Gli equilibri ionici della Chimica Analitica. Piccin Editore.

Slides provided by the lecturer