At the end of the course the student will understand the underlying causes and pathogenetic mechanisms of human diseases, as well as the etiology of the fundamental alterations of the structures, functions and mechanisms of control. They will also know the basic biological mechanisms of defence and their alterations. The course will develop from the molecular level to higher grades of organization (cell, tissue, organ, apparatus, organism)
Knowledge of the basics of microbiology (general microbiology)
Application of this knowledges to clinical cases with special regard to infectious diseases.
Choosing the optimal pathological sample on the basis of the site of the infection and of the suspected diagnosis; evaluation of the best systems for the collection, transportation and storage of pathological samples
Deep knolwledge of prevention, prophylaxis, diagnosis and diagnostic methods, treatments and eventual emergency procedures in infectious diseases.
Knowledge of the basic of human pathology, in particular cellular, morphological, immunophenotypical and molecular alterations of inflammatory , immune and neoplastic diseases. Organization of the laboratory of pathology, in particular methods of histo-cytopathology, immunofluorescence, immunohistochemistry and molecular biology
Introduction General Pathology
Cellular pathology: cellular adaptations (hyperplasia, hypertrophy, atrophy, metaplasia, dysplasia), apoptosis, necrosis
Inflammation: acute, chronic, inflammatory mediators
Fever and alterations of the temperature
Immune system: innate immunity, acquired (cell mediated and humoral)
Hypersensitivity: I, II, III e IV type
Introduction to the microbial world: bacteria, fungi, protozoa, viruses
Overview of the structure, metabolism, reproduction and replication models of microorganisms.
Principles of the treatment of the infections
Routes of infection and host response characteristics; prevention of the infection.
Collection of pathological samples based on the site of infection, characteristics of the treated germs, diagnostic methods available.
Pathology, pathogenesis, diagnostic systems.
Application of the notions transmitted to simulated clinical cases
Introduction to pathological anatomy
Compilation of a histo-cytopathological form
Method of fixation of biological material by formalin. Stages of preparation of a histological preparation: sampling, processing, paraffin embedding, cutting, staining.
Intraoperative examination: methods of execution, indications, examples of applicability.
Incisional and excisional biopsy; endoscopic biopsy.
Diagnostic cytology: exfoliative, needle aspiration, by apposition: applications.
Concepts of hyperplasia, hypertrophy, atrophy, aplasia, hypotrophy, metaplasia, dysplasia, carcinoma in situ.
Benign and malignant neoplasm: differences. Classification of neoplasms.
Invasive carcinoma. Tumor histological grade. Metastasis: lymphatic and blood. Tumor staging system: TNM.
Apoptosis Versus necrosis
Knowledge of the main pathologies of the gastrointestinal tract: Barrett's esophagus, esophageal carcinoma; chronic intestinal inflammatory diseases (Crohn's disease, ulcerative rectocolitis), colon polyps (hyperplastic polyp, colorectal adenomas), colo-rectal carcinoma.
Knowledge of the main thyroid diseases: goiter, Basedow disease, thyroiditis, thyroid tumors (follicular adenoma, follicular carcinoma, capillary carcinoma, undifferentiated carcinoma, medullary carcinoma).
Knowledge of the main pathologies of the breast (fibrosis-cystic mastopathy, fibroadenoma, carcinoma in situ and invasive carcinoma); sentinel lymph node;screening methods.
Knowledge of the main lung cancer pathologies (histology classification, clinical and action staging methods).
Knowledge of the main uterine pathologies (causes of uterine bleeding, leiomyomas and leiomyosarcomas).
Knowledge of the main pathologies of the urinary tract (cystitis and benign and malignant urothelial tumors).
Knowledge of the main tumors of the skin (squamous carcinoma, basal cell carcinoma, melanocytic nevi, melanoma).
Elementi di patologia generale per corsi di laurea in professioni sanitarie, Giovanni M. Pontieri – Piccin
Patologia generale di Maurizio Parola
A.Scarpa, L.Ruco - Anatomia patologica. Le basi
Gallo-D’Amati - Anatomia Patologica Sistematica.