The Course aims to provide students with the basic elements for the understanding of the economics of the health sector, by addressing not only the theoretical but also – in a complementary way – the applicative aspects, through a problematic and updated information on efficiency and effectiveness in the provision of health services. It will provide useful information on the institutional framework of the healthcare professional, with particular reference to the Italian one, making the concepts and acquire the basic language of economics and business matters. At the end of the course, students will be able to describe the main features of the functioning of health care markets and to develop skills of analysis of the Company, to identify the points in the economic evaluation that guide corporate policies, to recognize the main tools for performance measurement, useful for various business purposes; using the basic principles of the cost in relation to benefits, usefulness and effectiveness; analyze and develop strategies for the rationalization of health expenditure.
Acquire knowledge, skills and abilities that will enable them to have knowledge about: health determinants and lifestyle risk factors; methodologies for the prevention of chronic diseases; mode of occurrence and spread of infections. In addition, the course aims to analyze the relationships between environment and health issues related to microbiological, chemical and physical pollution of the different environmental matrices.
The course aims at providing students with knowledge about planning and the management of rehabilitation intervention, according to the criteria established by the guidelines of the Health Department for the rehabilitation activities and by the Plain for the rehabilitation, with special attention to the centrality of the disabled person and the basic concepts of ICF, to the rehabilitation based on the "outcomes" and their measurement.
- Elements of Economics: Choices and Constraints: the economic behavior - Exchange, market, money – Economic systems – Consumer Theory – Consumer behavior: needs, goods, preferences and Utilities – Consumer equilibrium – The theory of demand – Variation of prices and income – Theory of Production – Firm equilibrium – Production costs – The supply curve – Elasticity and graphical analysis of supply and demand – The various forms of market: common features and differences – The "failures" market mechanisms and the related corrective policies.
- The characteristics of good “health": The definition of "health" according to the World Health Organization – The measurement of health status – Health economics: definitions and analysis contexts – The relationships existing between the healthcare sector and the rest of the Economy.
- The Demand in Health Care: The need for health and the demand for healthcare services – The differences with respect to the microeconomic model of demand – The principal-agent model between physician and patient and the types of information asymmetry – Moral hazard and adverse selection, limits of healthcare insurance markets and role of the State – Critical aspects of the question: the phenomenon of "induction" – Problems of rationing and ethics in health.
- The Supply in Health: Healthcare production, supply, and market – The production function in Health – Input, output, and outcome – The theory of Hospitals – Applied Economics at hospitals: cost analysis – The definition and evaluation of the product – Measurement of outcome and quality of life – The relationship between health and economic development.
- Economics of health care companies: Characters of the healthcare market and justification of public intervention in Healthcare – The Health System: purpose, characteristics and organizational models – The principles of economy, efficiency, effectiveness and appropriateness in the activities of healthcare companies – Constituent elements and organizational system of corporate relations, internal dynamics and general accounting principles – Benchmarking in Healthcare – The E-Health and Information and Communications Technology (ICT) in Healthcare – The techniques of economic evaluation in the healthcare sector and priority setting in the processes of choice: analysis of cost minimization, cost-effectiveness analysis, cost-utility analysis, analysis cost.
Definition, basic concepts and tasks of Hygiene. Natural history of disease. Primary, secondary and tertiary prevention. The role of Health Education in health advocacy.
Elements of Epidemiology: definition, characteristics and purposes.
Sources and reservoirs of infection; routes of entry and elimination of pathogens; transmission mode; diffusion rates of infectious diseases.
General prophylaxis: direct prophylaxis. Specific prophylaxis: vaccine prophylaxis. Serum and Immunoglobulin prophylaxis. Chemoprophylaxis.
Epidemiology and prevention of infectious diseases in relation to the transmission mode.
Epidemiology and general prevention of non-infectious diseases: causes and risk factors. Genetic risk factors, environmental, behavioral. Modification of lifestyle. Secondary prevention.
The environment and its factors; relationships with health. Environmental pollution; bioavailability and biological amplification. Chemical hazards, the main pathological effects.
Atmospheric air. Definition. Physiological importance of the air. Physical and chemical characteristics.
Effects of atmospheric change on human health, its physical and chemical characteristics. Air pollution. Harmful effects of air pollution on the environment and humans: the immediate or short-term; distance or long term. Air pollution control.
Microclimate. Physical and chemical characteristics. Air intramural and environmental well-being. Thermoregulatory mechanisms. The indices of well-being. Pollution "indoor".
Water intended for human consumption. General. Sources of supply. The water needs. Potability requirements. Criteria to judge the potability. Correction of the organoleptic, chemical character, character bacteriological.
Noise. Noise characteristics. Health effects. Prevention of noise pollution. Italian legislation.
Radiation. Ionizing radiation. Radon. Non-ionizing radiation. Biological effects of electromagnetic fields.
Liquid waste. Definition, types of waste and their quantitative characteristics. Removal and disposal of municipal wastewater. Primary treatment, secondary, tertiary, sludge treatment.
Solid waste. Definition, classification. Collection, removal and disposal.
Programming rehabilitation interventions.
General criteria to evaluate diagnostic and therapeutic interventions.
Italian Ministry of Health guidelines for rehabilitation activities.
Rehabilitation essential lines.
The centrality of the disabled person.
The patient as a bio-psycho-social unit.
Intensive rehabilitation activities.
Extensive rehabilitation activities.
The rehabilitation setting.
The rehabilitation team.
The rehabilitation project.
The rehabilitation program.
"Outcome based Rehabilitation”: global and functional outcome, specific outcome and goal.
Measurement of the outcome.
A text of Hygiene chosen by the student.
Progettare la riabilitazione – Il lavoro in team interprofessionale a cura di Nino Basaglia – edi.ermes