The course develops skills about the environmental field, with particular reference to the effects of pollutants on the air, water and soil and their effects on health; knowledge of monitoring protocols in the three environmental compartments.
The ENVIRONMENTAL MUTAGENESIS teaching broadens and deepens the basic knowledge in the biological / genetic research gained in the first degree course. Mature, moreover, an integrated understanding of biological phenomena at the cell and molecular level applied to environmental issues. In detail, the course aims to deepen the knowledge of the main methods to monitor genotoxic activity of environmental samples by in vitro tests and knowledge of the main methods to bio-monitor the human populations exposed to genotoxic agents. From the application point of view, the students methodological skills related to the use of biological systems for the analysis of in vitro genotoxicity of environmental matrices of various kinds.
The environment and its factors; current state of the environment; relationships with health. Environmental pollution; bioavailability and biological amplification. Chemical hazards, major pathological effects; toxicity studies; the limits of acceptability.
physical and chemical characteristics. Air pollution (main sources, natural and man-made contaminants, primary and secondary, corpuscular and gaseous fuels; meteorological conditions and air pollution). damaging effects of air pollution on the environment (climate, vegetation, animals, materials). Health effects: immediate or short-term; distance or long-term. air pollution control.
Physical and chemical characteristics. Air inframurale and environmental well-being; thermoregulatory mechanisms; the well-being indices. "Indoor" The pollution.
Generality. Water intended for human consumption; sources of supply; water requirements; requirements of potability; criteria to rate potability; correction fisicoorganolettici characters, chemical characters, microbiological purification.
The urban waste water: composition and characteristics. Removal and disposal of residential areas with water distribution (primary treatment, secondary, tertiary, sludge treatment); from small groups or isolated houses with water distribution.
Collection, removal; disposal (landfill, incineration, composting).
The power supply as a risk factor and as a prevention tool. food and malnutrition needs. food poisoning. food preservation.
General principles of mutagenesis. The environmental factors that damage DNA. The mutagen and promutagen compounds. The main human patohologies related to envronmental pollutants. Cancer and genes involved in tumorigenesis. Oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes.
The mutagenesis tests. The short and long term tests. The in vivo and in vitro tests. Test using bacteria. The Ames test.
In vitro tests with mammalian cells. Cell cultures and the chinese hamster cell lines. The cytogenetic analysis: the chromosomal aberration and the SCE tests. The micronucleus test. The comet-assay.
Realization of a t est of mutagenesis with mammalian cells. The OECD guidelines. Preparation of the compound and the use of solvents. The positive and the negative controls. Statistical analysis of the results.
Monitoring of genotoxicity in environmental samples: air, water, soil.
Biomonitoring of human populations. The biomarker of exposition, of effect and of susceptibility.
1) Maria Triassi, Gabriella Aggazzotti, Margherita Ferrante, Igiene Medicina Preventiva e del Territorio, II edizione, Sorbona, Idelson Gnocchi, Napoli 2015.
2) Buffoli M, Capolongo S., Odone A, Signorelli C. Salute e Ambienter, EDISES, Napoli 2016.
Educational material will be provided by the teacher during class.
A textbook, not including the whole program, is the following:
L. Migliore. MUTAGENESI AMBIENTALE. Zanichelli, Bologna, 2004.