Fundamentals of the atomic structure, atomic particles and model with orbitals.
Radioactivity: characteristics of radiations and their biological effects. Stable and unstable isotopes
and their importance in biology and medicine. Atomic properties, electronic configurations and
Chemical bonding. Ionic, covalent, coordinative, hydrogen bond, Van der Waals forces. Chemical
resonance. Geometry of simple molecules. Orbital hybridization. Coordination complexes and biological macromolecules (hemoglobin, cytochromes, vitamin B12, etc.).
Chemical systematics: acidic and basic oxydes, hydroxides, acids; salts neutral, acidic and basic peroxydes, hydrures. General characteristics and properties of the solid, liquid and gaseous state. Laws of ideal gases and their importance in breathing. State passages. Water state diagram. Solutions: water as a solvent. Molarity, normality, molality, molar fraction. Concentrations of some
electrolytes in biological matrices. Colligative properties: cryoscopy, osmotic pressure and its biological meaning. Hypertonic, isotonic and hypotonic solutions and their use in medicine. Osmole
concept. Electrolytes, dissociation grade, ionic strength.
Chemical reactions. Kinetics and factors influencing the reaction velocity. Reaction order. Reaction
energy and catalysis. Catalysis relevance in biology: on overview of enzymatic catalysis. Chemical
equilibrium: law of the mass action. Principle of mobile equilibrium. Simple concepts on thermodynamics: enthalpy, entropy and free energy. Hess’s law. Bioenergetics: coupled reactions, compounds with high energetic potential (ATP, GTP, etc.).
Redox reactions: oxidation number, redox potential and its measurement; variation as pH function.
Potentiometric measurement of pH. Redox reactions in live matter.
Acids and bases: water as electrolyte, pH. Acidic and basic strength. Equilibria in solution:
hydrolysis, pK, buffer systems. Titration curves of acids and bases, ampholytes. Importance of acid/base equilibrium in the organism. Solubility product.
Colloidal solutions: characteristics, classification, methodology of study.
Bioinorganic chemistry: fundamental notions on chemical compounds of elements of major
biological interest: Na, K, Li, Ca, Mg, Cu, Mn, Fe, Co, H, O, C, N, S, P, Cl, Br.
Organic chemistry: classification of the compounds on the basis of functional groups. Classification
of the organic reactions. Isomerism. Structural cis-trans isomerism, tautomerism, optical isomerism
(stereochemical series); isomerism relevance on the properties of biological and medical compounds.
Electronic effects on organic molecules: inductive, mesomeric, steric. Electrophilic and nucleophilic reagents. Organic reactions: redox reactions; substitution reactions (SN1 e SN2); simple nucleophilic reaction of addiction to carbonyl bond; electrophilic addition reaction followed
by elimination reaction; electrophilic addition to alkenes and alkynes; electrophilic substitution reactions; orientation effects; polymerization reactions.
Organic compounds: Alkanes, alkenes, dienes, alkynes, cycloaliphatic hydrocarbons; nomenclature,
physical and chemical properties. Arenes: nomenclature, physical and chemical properties. Alkylic
and arylic halogenures: nomenclature, chemical properties. Aliphatic and aromatic alcools, mono
and polyvalent: nomenclature, classification, chemical properties. Thioalcools. Phenols, ethers and
thioethers: nomenclature, classification, chemical properties. Aliphatic and aromatic amines: nomenclature, classification, chemical properties; quaternary ammonium salts, amino-alcools, diamines.
Test reactions. Aliphatic and aromatic aldehydes and ketones: properties; aldol condensation. Aliphatic and aromatic acids: chemical properties, inductive effect on the acidity; mono and polycarboxylic acids, saturated, unsaturated; malonic synthesis, oxyacids (lactides and lactons), chetoacids; (keto-enol tautomerism), enolphosphates. Acid derivatives: phosphoric esters; amides, anhydrides: simple, mixed, cyclic; nitriles hydrazides: chemical properties and text reactions; acylic chlorides. Lipids: glycerides, fats, saponification; phospholipids and sphingolipids and their biological role. Aminoacids: electrolytic behavior; carbo-amidic bond. Peptides. Proteins and their structures. Glucides: nomenclature, solubility, classification; hexoses configuration, mutarotation, chemical properties; di- and polysaccharides; aminosugars. Heterocyclic compounds with 5 and 6 termini, aromatic rings, acidity (furan, pyrrole, thiophene, thiazole, imidazole, oxazole, pyridine, pyrimidine, purine, indole, chinoline, isochinoline, nicotinic acid, isonicotinic acid). Purinic and pyrimidinic bases: their tautomerism. Nucleic acids. Assays of organic compounds with biological relevance in the biochemo-clinical analyses.