Biophysics The organization of living beings. Structure of the human body: composition and fluid distribution. Membrane potentials. Passive properties of cell membrane. Action potentials: genesis and propagation. Synaptic transmission. Electrical and chemical synapses: morphology and general properties. The neuromuscular junction. Neuronal synapses. Origin of post-synaptic potentials: neurotransmitters, neuromodulators and their receptors. Pre- and post-synaptic modulation of post-synaptic potentials. The cardiovascular system Morphofunctional characteristics and general properties. Blood: composition and functions. Cardiac muscle physiology. Resting potential and action potential in pacemakes cells and in cardiomyocytes. Molecular mechanisms of cardiac muscle contraction. The heart as a pump: anatomy and function. Excitatory and conductive system of the heart. Control of excitation and conduction. Cardiac cycle. Electrocardiogram. Overview of the circulation. Biophysics of pressure, flow and resistance. Structure and function of blood vessels: arteries, veins and capillaries. Local and humoral control of tissue blood flow. Regulation of blood pressure. The microcirculartion and lymphatic system: capillary fluid exchange, interstitial fluid and lymph flow. The respiratory system Pulmonary ventilation. Pulmonary circulation. Physical principles of gas exchange. Transport of oxygen and carbon dyoxyde in blood and tissue fluids. Regulation of respiration. Acid-base regulation. The digestive system Morphofunctional organization. Nervous control of motility and secretion. Gastrointestinal blood circulation. Mechanical and chemical processes of digestion. Digestion and absorption of carbohydrates, proteins and lipids. Structure and function of the liver. Energy metabolism. Dietary balance and regulation of feeding. Body temperature regulation and fever. The kidney and urinary system Homeostasis of volume and hosmolarity of extracellular and intracellular fluids. Renal blood flow and glomerular filtration, and their control. Tubular reabsorption and secretion processes. Role of the kidney in the regulation of body fluids and electrolytes. Role of the kidney in long-term regulation of blood pressure.
Various authors - FISIOLOGIA DELL’UOMO - (Prampero P.E. e Veicsteinas A.) - Casa Editrice Edi.Ermes, Milano .
Silverthorn – FISIOLOGIA – Casa Editrice Ambrosiana, Milano.