Introduction to the Biology. Cell theory: cell and organisms. Structure and function of the proteins: primary, secondary, tertiary and quaternary structure. The enzymes. Structural and functional organization of eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells. Organelles: structure, function and evolution. Smooth and Rough reticulum, the Golgi apparatus, the lysosomes and peroxisomes.Viruses. The Metabolism and the energetic bases of the vital phenomena: the functions performed by ATP. Cell membranes: structure and function. The Endocytosis and Exocytosis. Membrane Fluidity. Role of membrane phospholipids and cholesterol. Intrinsic and Extrinsic protein. Glycoproteins and Glycolipids. The mechanisms of transport across the membrane: simple and facilitated diffusion. The active transport. Signal Transduction. The Hormones.The G-coupled receptors. Role of AMPc . Mechanisms of interaction between cells: CAM (Cadherins and Integrins). The genetic information : The nuclear genome: structure and function.The DNA structure: the double helix of Watson and Crick. Chemical composition of DNA. Chargaff Rules.The DNA in prokaryotes: the bacterial chromosome. The DNA in eukaryotes: Chromatin and chromosomes. The central dogma of molecular biology. From genotype to phenotype. Phenotype and environment. DNA replication: molecular mechanisms. Replication of telomeres: Telomerase. Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR): technology and its implications for Medicine. Expression and biological functions of the genome. Classification and structure of eukaryotic and prokaryotic genes. The process of transcription in prokaryotes and eukaryotes: synthesis and processing of RNA [mRNA and non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) including the miRNA]. The Splicing. Post-transcriptional RNA processing. Regulation of gene expression in eukaryotes. The Genetic Code. Protein synthesis. The Cell Reproduction: Cell division: binary fission, mitosis and meiosis. Male and female gametogenesis.The human karyotype: normal and pathological karyotypes. Numeric chromosomal abnormalities: trisomies and monosomies. Mitotic and meiotic non-disjunction. Mosaicism. Cell Cycle and CancerCell proliferation: the cycle and related control mechanisms. The neoplastic phenotype: Oncogenes and Tumor suppressor genes. Apoptosis. Inheritance in humans: Mendel’s experiments. Mode of transmission of genetic traits in humans. Mendelian Genetics. The limits of the Mendelian model. Genetic engineering and its application: restriction enzymes, cloning vectors, PCR, DNA sequencing. The Genome Projects. Role of Computational Biology and Bioinformatics in Medicine. Genetic diseases of Homo sapiens.Genetic mutation: Genetic mutations and epigenetic modifications of DNA. Chromosomic and genomic mutations. DNA repair of mutations.
1. De Leo, Fasano and Ginelli Biology and Genetics, Ed. Edises
2. Alberts, Bray, Hopkin, Johnson ..., Essential Molecular Biology of the Cell, Ed Zanichelli
3.Gerald Karp, Cell and Molecular Biology, Ed. Edises
4. M. R.Cummings, Heritage, Ed. Edises
OF NOTE: It is important to use the most recent edition of each textbook .