At the end of the course the student will get the ability to describe, in a complete way and with right terms, the structural organization of the human body in healthy conditions and the contributions of the structure to the function, in order to be able to apply this knowledge to nursing practice. The student will have to demonstrate complete knowledge of the human body, to describe the macro and microscopic constitution of the apparatuses, systems and organs that compose it.
The course develops skills on the knowledge of different cell types and their organization in the various tissues of the human body. Furthermore, skills on the morphological, microscopic structure of the tissues in the various components
Frontal teaching, e-learning, using PowerPoint, integrating with case reports, images and recent references.
Frontal lessons in the classroom. Should teaching be carried out in mixed mode or remotely, it may be necessary to introduce changes with respect to previous statements, in line with the program planned and outlined in the syllabus. Learning assessment may also be carried out on line, should the conditions require it.
The course aims to address the main characteristics of anatomical organization of organs and systems and of the fundamental principles of topographic and clinical anatotomy for nursing practice.
COURSE PRESENTATION. HUMAN ANATOMICAL REGIONS. Anatomy terminology and structural organization of human body.Human anatomical regions. Anatomical positions and movements of the human body. Human body cavities.
THE INTEGUMENTARY SYSTEM. The structure and functions of the skin. The skin appendages: sebaceous glands, hair, nails, sweat glands.
THE ENDOCRINE SYSTEM. Description and characteristics of the principal glands. Position, relationships, and function of: pituitary or pituitary gland (anterior and posterior lobes), epiphysis or pinal gland, thyroid, parathyroid, adrenal glands, pancreas and gonads.
THE LOCOMOTOR SYSTEM. Osteology: description of the skull, of the pectoral girdle (clavicles and scapulae), of the pelvic girdle and of the limbs. Vertebral column, thoracic cage (sternum, ribs, thoracic vertebrae, and costal cartilages). Arthrology: description of the synovial joints (articular cartilage, joint capsule, synovial membrane, synovial fluid, discs and menisci, ligaments). Myology: description of the main muscles with their origins, insertions, actions and innervations (axial muscles of the head, neck and back; muscles of the abdominal wall and thorax; muscles of the pectoral girdle and upper limb; appendicular muscles of the pelvic girdle and lower limbs).
CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM. Heart: function, position, relationships, structure, morphology, valves and fibrous skeleton. Systemic and pulmonary circulation. Cardiac conduction system. General features the vascularization of the head, intra and extracranial cerebral districts (carotid and vertebrobasilar systems and circle of Willis). The main arterial vessels of the thorax and abdomen (aorta and its main branches). The main arterial vessels of the limbs. the most important venous vessels of the head and neck, of the thorax, of the abdomen (with particular attention to the portal vein), veins of the upper limbs (with particular attention to the superficial circulation) and veins of the lower limbs (superficial and deep circulation).
THE LYMPHATIC SYSTEM. Organization of the lymphatic vessels, macroscopic anatomy of the thymus and spleen, structure of lymph nodes.
THE RESPIRATORY SYSTEM. General features, functions and organization of the respiratory system. The upper respiratory tract: nose and nasal cavity, paranasal sinuses, nasopharynx and larynx. The tracheo-bronchial tree: trachea, bronchi, and bronchioles. The lungs, the pleurae and the lower respiratory tract. Diaphragm and main respiratory muscles.
THE DIGESTIVE SYSTEM. General features, structure and function of the digestive system. -Oral cavity, tongue, teeth and salivary glands - General features, position, relationships, morphology and structure of: Pharynx, Esophagus, Stomach, Small intestine (duodenum, jejunum, and ileum), Large intestine (cecum, appendix, ascending colon, transverse colon, descending colon, sigma, rectum, anus), Liver, Gallbladder and bile duct, Pancreas.
THE URINARY SYSTEM. General features of: kidneys and urinary tract (minor and major calyces, renal pelvis, ureters, bladder, male and female urethra).
THE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM. The female reproductive system: General features of ovaries, fallopian tubes, uterus, vagina and vulva. The male reproductive system: General features of scrotum, testicles, epididymis, vas deferens, seminal vesicles, ejaculatory duct, prostate, penis.
NEUROANATOMY. General features and organization (Central Nervous System, Peripheral Nervous System, Autonomous Nervous System). Brainstem, Cerebellum, Diencephalon, Telencephalon, Limbic System. Functions of specific cortical areas. Basic features of Spinal cord and spinal nerves. Meninges and cerebrospinal fluid. Principal Cranial Nerves generalities.
RECEPTORS AND SENSORY ORGANS. Sensory receptors (chemoreceptors, thermoreceptors, mechanoreceptors, photoreceptors). Specific sensory system. FINAL CONCLUSIONS.
The aim of the course is the acquisition of skills on the knowledge of the different cell types and their organization in various tissues constituting the human body. So skills on morphological and microscopic structure of the tissue in the different components
1. Ambrosi G. et al.: Human Anatomy - Elements, Ed. Edi-Ermes
2. Thomas R.G.: Anatomy Atlas, Ed. Piccin
3. Shier D. et al.: Hole's Anatomy and Physiology for health care jobs, Ed. McGraw-Hill
4. Passaponti A. et al.: Human Anatomy, Ed. Edi-Ermes (for further informations consult)
1. S. ADAMO, N. BERNARDINI, C. BOITANI,.......E. ZIPARO - Elementi di Istologia e cenni di Embriologia – Piccin