Aim of the course
The aim of the course is to provide the basic knowledge to understand the organization of the human body and the anatomical terminology. The concepts of organ, apparatus and system are deepened and the principal methods of investigation, macroscopic, microscopic and ultramicroscopic examination, are explained
The course develops skills on the knowledge of different cell types and their organization in the various tissues of the human body. Furthermore, skills on the morphological, microscopic structure of the tissues in the various components.
Principles of general anatomy. Construction criteria of the human body: external forms and surface anatomy. General notions on the apparatus locomotor system. Systematic fundamental anatomy of skeletal segments, of the joints and muscles with elements of topographical anatomy, of biomechanics, of radiological and functional anatomy.
Frontal lessons in the classroom.
Should teaching be carried out in mixed mode or remotely, it may be necessary to introduce changes with respect to previous statements, in line with the program planned and outlined in the syllabus.
Learning assessment may also be carried out on line, should the conditions require it.
Chemistry of life
Atoms and chemical bonds. Molecules. Water: characteristics, colloids and suspensions. Salts and buffer systems. Carbohydrates. Proteins. Lipids.
The cell and its principal components. Morphology and role of cytoplasmic membrane, nucleus and cytoplasmic organs.
Covering epithelium and glandular epithelium. Classification of exocrine and endocrine glands. Connective tissue: cells, fibres and amorphous fundamental substance. Classification of connective tissues. Blood and its components: plasma and figurative elements. Muscular tissue: histological characteristics of smooth muscle, striated and cardiac skeletal muscle. Nervous system: neurons, nervous fibres and synapses. Neuroglia. Structure of solid and non-solid organ.
The skin and its annexes. Structure of the epidermis.
Classification of the bones and macroscopic description of the bones of the head (neurocranium and splancnocranium), the trunk (vertebral column and rib cage), upper limb (shoulder girdle, arm, forearm and hand), lower limb (pelvis, thigh, leg and foot). The joints: classification of synarthroses, amphiarthroses and diarthroses. Morphology and function of the most important joints of trunk and limbs.
Constitution of muscle, muscle belly, tendons, aponeuroses. Different kinds of muscles. Cutaneous and skeletal muscles. Insertion and functional role of the major muscle groups of trunk and limbs.
Heart and blood vessels (arteries, capillaries and veins). Systemic loop and pulmonary loop. Gross anatomy of heart, pericardium and mediastinum. Anatomical conformation of atria and ventricles. The valves of the heart. The electrical conduction system of the heart. Microscopic organization of epicardium, myocardium and pericardium. The major arteries: pulmonary artery and aorta. Branches of ascending aorta, aortic arch, thoracic aorta and abdominal aorta. Microscopic organization of the artery wall. The main veins: the superior and inferior vena cava, the cardiac veins and the portal system of veins. Microscopic organization of the vein wall. Structure of the capillaries. Fetal circulation and role of the placenta.
Formation of lymph and course of the lymphatic vessels. The thoracic duct and its tributaries. The haematopoietic organs: marrow, spleen, lymph nodes and thymus.
General considerations and organs that belong to it. The mouth with the teeth and the tongue. The salivary glands: parotid, submaxillary, and sublingual. The pharynx. The esophagus. The stomach. The small intestine and the large intestine. Structural features of the alimentary canal walls (mucous, submucous, muscular, serosa or adventitia layers). The glands of the digestive system: liver and biliary ducts, pancreas. The peritoneum.
General considerations. The nasal cavities. The larynx. The tracheo-bronchial tree. The lungs. Structural features of the walls of the respiratory tract and of the lung. Pleural serosa.
General considerations on its organs. The kidney: macroscopic description, structure of the parenchyma (medullary substance and cortical substance), the nephron. The renal escretory ducts: calices, pelvis, ureter, bladder, urethra. Structural features of the walls of the renal escretory ducts.
The male genital organs: the testis and the spermatic ducts. The female genital organs: the ovary, the uterin tube, the uterus and the vagina.
General considerations and structural features of the endocrine glands. The hypophysis. The pineal gland. The thyroid. The Parathyroids. The suprarenal glands. The endocrine activity of the gonads. The islets of Langerhans.
Central nervous system
General considerations on the parts of the cerebrospinal axis. Nevrax cavities. The meninges. The spinal cord: general features, structure, sensitive nuclei and motor nuclei, ascending and descending nerve fibres. Functional considerations on the spinal cord fascicles. The rhombencephalon: general features, structure, sensitive nuclei of medulla oblongata and pons. The cerebellum: external morphology, cyto- and myeloarchitectonics. Cerebellar functions. The mesencephalon: general features, cerebral peduncles and corpora quadrigemina. The diencephalon: epithalamus, metathalamus, optic thalamus, hypothalamus. The telencephalon: scissures, lobes, comvolutions and parts of the cerebral hemispheres. The grey matter of the cerebral hemisphere: cerebral cortex and corpus striatus. The white matter of the cerebral hemisphere: corona radiata and internal capsule. Corpus callosum, fornix, septum pellucidum. The pyramidal motor system. The extrapyramidal motor system. The general sensation pathways. The optic pathway. The auditory pathway. The vestubular pathway.
Peripheral nervous system
The spinal nerves and the cranial nerves.
Visceral nervous system:
Organs of the senses
The organs of general sensations. Organs of taste. Organs of smell. Organs of sight: the eyeball and its accessory organs. Organs of hearing and of vestibular propriceptive sensation: external ear, middle ear and internal ear.
The aim of the course is the acquisition of skills on the knowledge of the different cell types and their organization in various tissues constituting the human body. So skills on morphological and microscopic structure of the tissue in the different components.
1) L. Cattaneo - Compendio di Anatomia Umana - Monduzzi
2) G. Ambrosi ed altri - Anatomia dell'uomo - Edi-Ermes
1. S. ADAMO, N. BERNARDINI, C. BOITANI,.......E. ZIPARO - Elementi di Istologia e cenni di Embriologia – Piccin