The course aims both to complete the topics covered in General and Inorganic Chemistry I, but also to develop new concepts such as ionic equilibria in aqueous solution, electrochemistry and hints of Inorganic chemistry that will serve as a cultural background to address the subsequent teachings. This second course of General and Inorganic Chemistry will provide the student with the tools to consolidate the knowledge of general chemistry, in fact by addressing the chemistry of the elements of the first three periods of the periodic table he will be able to apply all the knowledge of chemistry learned up to now: electronic configuration, chemical reactivity, oxidation numbers, metallic character, type of bonds formed.
The course, thanks to the in-depth study of chemical processes in aqueous solution such as dissociation of poorly soluble salts, solubility, pH of both strong and weak acid and base solutions, buffer solutions and electrochemistry, will provide the student with an idea of the role of chemistry in society and in everyday life.
Laboratory exercises will be carried out to reinforce the concepts addressed in the classroom and to introduce the student in a practical way to a chemical laboratory. The student will learn to organize and carry out a chemical experiment and to use glassware and some simple laboratory instruments such as pH meter, tester.
At the end of the course the student will acquire and mature the essential skills to face and solve questions related to quantitative calculations in equilibrium reactions, determine the pH of solutions of strong and weak acids and bases, saline solutions and buffers, determine the solubility of slightly soluble salts, calculate the quantities of elements deposited on the electrodes after electrolysis of molten salts or solutions, determine the direction of a reaction based on the standard reduction potentials both in standard and non-standard conditions.
The aim of the course is to acquire the reasoning skills necessary to tackle the study of chemical phenomena with analytical and numerical methods (applying knowledge and understanding).
Specific training objectives:
Understanding the equilibria in aqueous solution regarding the properties of both strong and weak acids and bases, and the solubility of salts. To know the relationships between structure and strength of acid compounds. Understanding how a buffer solution works. To know electrochemistry both in reference to galvanic cells and to electrolysis. To understand the meaning of standard reduction potentials and the competition between elements in electrolysis. To know the general notes of Inorganic Chemistry with some insight into the reactivity of the elements of the first three periods of the periodic table.
Furthermore, with reference to the so-called Dublin Descriptors, this course contributes to acquiring the following transversal skills:
Knowledge and understanding: Inductive and deductive reasoning skills. Ability to schematize a chemical reaction in qualitative and quantitative terms. Ability to set up a problem using
appropriate relationships between physico-chemical quantities and to solve it with analytical methods.
Ability to apply knowledge: Ability to apply the knowledge acquired for the description of chemical phenomena using rigorously the scientific method. Capacity for quantitative calculation of
reactants and products of equilibrium chemical reactions.
Autonomy of judgment: Critical reasoning skills. Ability to identify the most suitable solutions to solve chemical problems. Ability to identify the predictions of a theory or model. Ability to evaluate
the accuracy needed to be used in stoichiometric calculations.
Communication skills: Ability to describe a scientific topic in oral and written form, with properties
Initially the course will includes a large number of lectures to deal with about 2/3 of the topics.
Then the lectures will be combined with laboratory hours where the students will put into practice the concepts addressed in the front lectures.
Finally, a session of numerical exercise facing problems on the topics covered in lectures will be provided
Should teaching be carried out in mixed mode or remotely, it may be necessary to introduce changes with respect to previous statements, in line with the programme planned and outlined in the syllabus
1. Ionic equilibria in aqueous solution: Acid and base, pH, solubility of salts and solubility product.
2. Electrochemistry: conductivity of aqueous solutions, electrolysis, Faraday laws, piles and normal potentials of semi-elements, use of normal potentials for the prediction of a redox reaction, overvoltage and discharge potentials.
3. Inorganic chemistry: hydrogen and elements of the s group, alkaline and alkaline-earth metals, elements of the p-block: outlines on the third group, fourth group, fifth group, sixth group (the calcogens), seventh group (the halogens), outline on rare gases.
5. Exercises: - Solubility and solubility product (Definition of solubility product constant Relationship between solubility of salts and their solubility product for salts of different stoichiometry)
- Calculation of the pH of acid/base solutions, buffer solutions and salt solution
- Electrochemistry (Calculation of the E ° of a redox reaction and of the relative equilibrium constant, calculation of the quantities obtained from electrolysis of saline solutions and molten salts)
6. Laboratory experiences: 1) Titrations of strong monoprotic acids and also pH-metric
2) Solubility of salts (determination of solubility product of a slightly soluble salt and solubility test of silver halides in ammonia
4) Construction of a battery and electrolysis of aqueous solutions
6) Permanganometric titration of hydrogen peroxide and a detergent containing sodium percarbonate
All the topics covered are considered indispensable for passing the exam.
1. M.S. Siberberg, CHIMICA (La natura molecolare della materia e dele sue trasformazioni), Mc Graw Hill
2. R.H. Petrucci, W.S. Harwood, F.G. Herring, CHIMICA GENERALE (Principi e moderne applicazioni), Piccin
4. P Michelin Lausarot, G.A. Vaglio, STECHIMETRIA, Piccin