This course allows the students to acquire the fundamental knowledge on general chemistry and inorganic chemistry, essential requisite to understand related subjects in a large variety of scientific and technologic topics. The student will acquire the fundamental skills on the subject and will be able to use this knowledge to solve practical and numerical problems.
The course focuses on the fundamental chemistry of carbon compounds and an appreciation of its relevance to biology and toxicology. Topics will include nomenclature, structure, properties, synthesis, and reactions, of the major functional groups of organic compounds.
The fundamental objective is to stimulate the student to apply his reasoning skills in the study of matter, limiting the mnemonic effort to the learning of a restricted set of the basic principles of Organic Chemistry.
NB: Should teaching be carried out in mixed mode or remotely, it may be necessary to introduce changes with respect to previous statements, in line with the programme planned and outlined in the syllabus.
Class lessons and exercises. During the course, slides will be projected and can be downloaded from Studium.
The lectures for this course will be a combination of classic blackboard lectures and PowerPoint.
Dalton's atomic theory. Subatomic particles. Atomic and mass numbers. Isotopes. Bohr’s atomic theory. Energy quantization. Schrodinger equation. Atomic orbital. Quantum numbers. Periodic table. Electronic configuration.
Types of chemical bonds: ionic bond, covalent bond, dative bond. Valence bond theory. Electronegativity and bond polarity. Lewis structure. Molecular geometry and VSEPR theory. Hybridization. Molecular orbital theory. Intermolecular forces. Hydrogen bond.
Nomenclature and chemical reactions
Classification of organic compounds. Oxidation number. Reaction and chemical equation. Equation balancing. Redox reactions. Stoichiometry.
State of aggregation – Solutions
General properties of solid, liquid and gas. Solutions: Solvent-solute, how to express the concentration, colligative properties.
Basis of thermodynamic and kinetic
Basic Principles of thermodynamics. Spontaneity of reactions. Rate of reaction.
Law of mass action. Equilibrium constant. Modification of the equilibrium. Le Chatelier’s principle.
Ionic equilibrium in solution
Electrolytic dissociation. Acid and bases. Autoionization of water and Kw. Acid strength, Ka, Kb. Acidity of solution: pH. Acid-base reactions. Buffer solution.
An introduction to the study of organic chemistry
Electronic structure and bonding; ibridization; acids and bases; introduction to organic compounds: nomenclature, physical properties, representation of structure
Functional Groups, Nomenclature of Organic Compounds
Stereochemistry: stereoisomers, chirality and stereocenters; enantiomers, Chan/Ingold/Prelog convention (R/S); optical activity. Diastereomers (cis/trans isomers), molecules with two or more stereocenters; Fischer projections.
Alkanes: composition, structure and configuration, reactivity; free radical reactions of alkanes (chlorination and bromination). Cycloalkanes
Alkyl halides: structure, nomenclature. Reactions: substitution and elimination reactions of alkyl halides, mechanisms; competition between substitution and elimination
Alkenes: structure, nomenclature and an introduction to reactivity · thermodynamics and kinetics. The reactions of alkenes: Electrophilic addition reactions, stereochemistry, and electron delocalization. Dienes
Alkynes: structure, nomenclature and reactivity, pka. The reactions of alkines.
Alcohols, ethers, expoxides and sulfur-containing compounds: structure, nomenclature and reactivity
Aromatic compounds: Aromaticity · reactions of benzene; Reactions of substituted benzenes
Carbonyl compounds. Aldehydes and Ketones: structure, nomenclature and reactivity; carbon as a nucleophile
Carboxylic Acids. structure, nomenclature and reactivity; nucleophilic acyl substitution. Derivatives of Carboxylic Acids: Acyl Halides, Anhydrides, Esters, Amides: reactivity. Nitriles
Carbonyl compounds: reactions at the α-carbon; α,β-unsaturated carbonyl compounds
Amines. Structure, nomenclature and reactivity. Aromatic amines. Heterocyclic compounds
Amino acids, peptides, and proteins
Nucleosides, nucleotides, and nucleic acids
 J. Kotz, P. Treichel, J. Townsend, D. Trechiel – Chimica - Edises
 P. Atkins, L. Jones, F. Mani - Principi di chimica- Zanichelli
 A. M. Manotti Lanfredi, A. Tiripicchio – Fondamenti di chimica- Casa editrice Ambrosiana