Academic Year 2020/2021 - 2° Year

9 CFU - 2° Semester

**Hygiene**To prepare the student to the concepts of specific determinants of health and illness, to the evaluation and management of different types of risk and to provide the basis for epidemiology and prevention.

**Biostatistics**To develop statistical and methodological abilities applied to the analysis of biological/biomedical events by: i) the principal tools of statistical data collection, measurement and analysis and ii) the basics in data management and analysis

**Hygiene**The course includes lectures in which continuous interaction with the students is encouraged, and exercises in the classroom and in the laboratory to develop the ability to apply the knowledge acquired during the course.

Should teaching be carried out in mixed mode or remotely, it may be necessary to introduce changes with respect to previous statements, in line with the programme planned and outlined in the syllabus.

Learning assessment may also be carried out on line, should the conditions require it.

**Biostatistics**The course includes lectures in which continuous interaction with students and exercises in the classroom are performed, using elementary statistical software, namely Excel by Microsoft, with examples to apply the knowledge acquired during the course.

**Hygiene**Hygiene, Epidemiology and Prevention. Environmental Hygiene. General epidemiology of non-communicable diseases. Prevention of non-communicable diseases. General principles for primary and secondary prevention of non-communicable diseases. National Prevention Plan. Screening of cancer. Requirements and general measures of biohazards management .General epidemiology of infections and infectious diseases. General principles of infectious diseases prevention. Active and passive immunization.

**Biostatistics**__Descriptive Statistics:__- Scales: nominal, ordinal, discrete e continuous quantitatives
- Frequency distributions: absolute, relative and cumulative
- Charts and graphics of univariate variables
- Moments of a numerical series: first, second, third and fourth moment
- Central tendency measures: arithmetic mean, quadratic, geometric and harmonyc mean
- Position measures: median and quantiles
- Variability measures: variance. standard deviation, coefficient of variation, interquartile interval
- Measures of shape: Fisher ϒ
_{1}of asimmetry, Fisher ϒ_{2 }of Kurtosis - Precision and accuracy

__Mathematical Statistics__:- Definition of probability (a priori byi Laplace and frequentistic by Von Mises)
- Sum and product principles
- Conditional probability and Bayes Theorem
- Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values of a diagnostic test
- Bernoulli variable and binomial probability
- Poisson probability
- Gaussian density function
- Standard normal deviate
*z*

__Inferential statistics__- Bernoulli central limit theorem Teorema and probability distribution of sample mean
- Variance, standard deviation and standard error of a sample mean corrected for degrees of freedom
- Sampling: random sampling, startified sampling and multistage sampling
- Test of hypothesis null and alternative hypothesis
- α and β errors
- Confidence intervals for a population mean from a sample mean
- Test of hypothesis for the comparison between a sample mean and a population mean, σ Known
- Student
*t*probability distribution and consequent tests for:

- comparison between a sample mean and a population mean, σ unknown;
- comparison between means of two paired samples;
- comparison between means of two unpaired samples;

- Sign test;
- Wilcoxon sum rank test;
- χ
^{2 }probability distribution; - χ
^{2 }test for contingency tables *Odds ratio*and its confidence interval;- Linear bivariate correlation and regression

**Hygiene**1. G. Gilli. PROFESSIONE IGIENISTA MANUALE DELL'IGIENE AMBIENTALE E TERRITORIALE. Casa Editrice Ambrosiana

2. Ruggenini Moiraghi, GM Grasso IL RISCHIO BIOLOGICO NEI LABORATORI: EPIDEMIOLOGIA, VALUTAZIONE E PREVENZIONE CG Edizioni Medico Scientifiche

3. Barbuti S., Fara G.M., Giammanco G. – IGIENE, MEDICINA DI COMUNITÀ E SANITÀ PUBBLICA. Edizione EDISES 2014.

4. Paul A. Schulte. Molecular Epidemiology: Principles and Practices. 1993.

During the course other texts and documents mostly in English language will be recommended

**Biostatistics****For descriptive statistics: PDF manual chapter 1 published on studium****For mathematical statistics and inference: Wayne W. Daniel, Chad I. Cross, Biostatistica, EdiSES**