MICROORGANISMS AND PARASITES: INFECTION OF THE HOST
Identify the different types of relationship that microorganisms and human parasites have with the host, differentiating the phenomenon "infection" from that of "disease".
Correlate the virulence mechanisms of microorganisms and parasites with the various "types" of infection and pathological conditions induced.
Analyze the critical factors that determine the "contagion" and the spread of microorganisms and parasites in relation to their unique biological characteristics.
Distinguish different "types" of viral infection; differentiate a viral infection from that induced by other microorganisms and parasites.
BIOLOGICAL ESSENTIAL FEATURES OF MICROORGANISMS and PARASITES RESPONSIBLE FOR HUMAN INFECTIONS
Classify microorganisms and parasites in the various stages of aggregation of living matter (metazoans, prokaryotes, eukaryotes, viruses), correlating the degree of organization with the pathogenic action.
As part of the structural organization of the microorganisms and parasites, identify the structures / functions necessary to carry out metabolic processes and replication, and to determine the infection or disease in the host.
Correlate variation and mutation phenomena in microorganisms and parasites with the pathogenic action and resistance to antimicrobial substances.
THE MICROORGANISMS AND THE ENVIRONMENT
Assess the degree of resistance (survival) in the environment of microorganisms and parasites as a critical factor for the infection of the host.
CONTROL OF INFECTIONS
Define the principle of "selective toxicity" finalizing the therapeutic use of antimicrobials.
Describe and classify the inhibitory mechanisms, the site of action, the antibiotic spectrum of action, as well as for antiviral, antifungal and antiprotozoal substances.
Disclose assumptions biological of antibiotic resistance (genotypic and phenotypic) and the resistance to other antimicrobial agents (anti-viral, anti-fungal, anti-protozoal).
Analyze the limits of antiviral chemotherapy in relation to the biological characteristics of the virus and pathogenesis of viral infection.
Assess the experimental procedures to interfere on the different functions of microorganisms and parasites by use of inhibiting substances.
Define immunization practices relating it to the prevention of human infections and possibly with the treatment of an infectious disease (vaccine prophylaxis or vaccine therapy).
Define the practice of treatment with immune sera (serum prophylaxis and serum therapy) correlating with the prevention of human infection and the treatment of an infectious disease.
Indicate the composition of a vaccine and of an antimicrobial immune serum.
Identify the meaning and the current limits of the vaccination in the control (or eradication) of bacterial and viral infections.
Evaluate the results and prospects of experimental prophylaxis of fungal infections and parasites.
List the major antimicrobial vaccines currently in use by defining the essential characteristics.
Identify the limitations of vaccination with whole microorganisms (killed or attenuated) by analyzing the theoretical - applicative perspectives arising from the use of new vaccines obtained with molecular biology techniques.
MICROORGANISMS AND PARASITES RESPONSIBLE FOR HUMAN INFECTIONS
Identify the most essential biological characteristics and pathogenicity of microorganisms and parasites for man as preparatory study to clinical microbiology (CI Medical laboratory).
Critically analyze and describe, for each "species": the way of entry into the body, the differentiated spread in the infected, the presence of antigens in the various districts of the organism (blood, secretions, excretions) for the purpose of "contagion" and laboratory diagnosis.
Describe briefly the characteristic features of a single disease and the main injuries for organs and systems.
Traditional lectures, with the support of slides and educational videos of some theoretical-practical teaching topics (the films will be available on the Studium page): https://220.127.116.11/dokeos/2021/courses/20663/
One of the last lessons will be dedicated to the Journal Club in which some groups of students will have the opportunity to critically evaluate recent articles in the medical literature. The day will be titled "Students in Chair".
Should teaching be carried out in mixed mode or remotely, it may be necessary to introduce changes with respect to previous statements, in line with the programme planned and outlined in the syllabus.
Module of Bacteriology (3 credits)
Module of Virology (2 Credits)
Module of Mycology and Parasitology (2 Credits)
More recent edition:
1: Principi di microbiologia medica - La Placa M. Edises
2: Microbiologia Medica - Murray P. R., Rosenthal K.S., Pfaller M. A. - Casa Editrice Elsevier.
3: Principi di microbiologia medica - Antonelli G., Clementi M., Pozzi G., Rossolini G.M. - Casa Editrice Ambrosiana