The Course aims to provide students with the basic elements for the understanding of the economics of the health sector, by addressing not only the theoretical but also – in a complementary way – the applicative aspects, through - through a problematic and updated information on efficiency and effectiveness in the provision of health services. It will provide useful information on the institutional framework of the healthcare professional, with particular reference to the Italian one, making the concepts and acquire the basic language of economics and business matters. At the end of the course, students will be able to describe the main features of the functioning of health care markets and to develop skills of analysis of the Company, to identify the points in the economic evaluation that guide corporate policies, to recognize the main tools for performance measurement, useful for various business purposes; using the basic principles of the cost in relation to benefits, usefulness and effectiveness; analyze and develop strategies for the rationalization of health expenditure.
The aim of the course is to provide information and knowledge about workplace-related pathologies (accidents and illnesses) as well as to become familiar with prevention principles, with particular reference to risk assessment and preventive measure adoption.
Students will have to learn methods and techniques to collect work history, identify environmental and occupational risks and possible relationships with genetic, demographic, socio-economic, psychological and cultural factors, related to health or illness statuses, as well as to look into the possible non-specific effects of occupational risk factors, especially for degenerative chronic diseases.
The main etiologically diagnostic aspects of occupational medicine will be dealt with, and so will the epidemiology of con-causally work-related diseases. Also, the most frequent professional diseases and work accidents will be classified. The main analysis method and work risk assessment instruments will be provided, that is limit exposure levels, environmental/biological monitoring and healthcare surveillance. Also, occupational risk in/formation, safety and health law guidelines in work places, primary and secondary prevention of occupational diseases, role and duties of the competent physician will be discussed.
The Course is divided into two parts: general Economy and Economy applied to the Health Sector.
The teaching activity will be articulated through lectures, with the help of concept maps and demonstrations in graphic-mathematical form of the most important economic concepts and institutions. The students' interventions will have been given ample space.
The didactic supports used during the lessons will always be those present in the classroom (blackboard and felt-tip pens), as the graphic and mathematical-financial demonstrations carried out "live" will make possible a more direct, participated and conscious learning by the participants, who will take gradually familiarity with theorems, formulas and axial projections.
Should teaching be carried out in mixed mode or remotely, it may be necessary to introduce changes with respect to previous statements, in line with the programme planned and outlined in the Syllabus.
Learning assessment will take place orally, in the established exams and will require the analysis and graphic demonstration of the economic theories in the program. It may also be carried out on line, should the conditions require it.
- Elements of Economics: Choices and Constraints: the economic behavior - Exchange, market, money – Economic systems – Consumer Theory – Consumer behavior: needs, goods, preferences and Utilities – Consumer equilibrium – The theory of demand – Variation of prices and income – Theory of Production – Firm equilibrium – Production costs – The supply curve – Elasticity and graphical analysis of supply and demand – The various forms of market: common features and differences – The "failures" market mechanisms and the related corrective policies.
- The characteristics of good “health": The definition of "health" according to the World Health Organization – The measurement of health status – Health economics: definitions and analysis contexts – The relationships existing between the healthcare sector and the rest of the Economy.
- The Demand in Health Care: The need for health and the demand for healthcare services – The differences with respect to the microeconomic model of demand – The principal-agent model between physician and patient and the types of information asymmetry – Moral hazard and adverse selection, limits of healthcare insurance markets and role of the State – Critical aspects of the question: the phenomenon of "induction" – Problems of rationing and ethics in health.
- The Supply in Health: Healthcare production, supply, and market – The production function in Health – Input, output, and outcome – The theory of Hospitals – Applied Economics at hospitals: cost analysis – The definition and evaluation of the product – Measurement of outcome and quality of life – The relationship between health and economic development.
- Economics of health care companies: Characters of the healthcare market and justification of public intervention in Healthcare – The Health System: purpose, characteristics and organizational models – The principles of economy, efficiency, effectiveness and appropriateness in the activities of healthcare companies – Constituent elements and organizational system of corporate relations, internal dynamics and general accounting principles – Benchmarking in Healthcare – The E-Health and Information and Communications Technology (ICT).
History and evolution of Occupational Medicine: prevention service legislation and organization; work accidents and professional diseases insurance practices. Risk assessment procedure; exposure times and limit levels/values.
Primary and secondary prevention principles. Healthcare surveillance and duties of competent physician. Biological monitoring procedures. General and individual preventive practices and first aid action organization. Biological risk and vaccinations. Physical risks: noise, vibrations, ionizing-non-ionizing radiations, microclimate and compressed atmosphere. Ergonomy principles: postures and work. Workstation, shift and night work risks. Assessment of risks in manual loads handling and in repetitive movements of upper limbs with associated pathologies. Organizational wellness and its associated work stress. Health promotion in working places.
Main dust/fibre and professional allergene exposure–related pathologies; indoor and outdoor pollutants. Exposure risks to chemical, mutagen and carcenogenic agents.
Principles of Industrial Hygiene and hints of Statistics. Risks in the main working cycles. Guidelines on safety and health in working places.