The student will acquire the basics for the understanding of classical mechanics, wave phenomena, fluid mechanics, thermal phenomena in fluids and solids. Moreover, through exercises and problems to be solved in the classroom and at home, the student will be accustomed to solving concrete problems. The student who will have acquired the topics and methodologies of the course, will be able to face and solve problems of various kinds through a logical-scientific approach.
In particular, the course proposes the following objectives:
Knowledge and ability to understand (knowledge and understanding): the student will be introduced to the basic knowledge of the laws of classical physics (mechanics, fluids and thermodynamics). The student will develop the ability to understand the most important physical phenomena related to the course program.
Applying knowledge and understanding: the student will be initiated to an application in practical fields of acquired knowledge, with continuous examples of applied physics for the understanding of the real world.
Making judgments: the student will be induced to a critical analysis of the level of knowledge acquired, pushing him to a self-assessment of his knowledge and skills, trying to develop an autonomy of judgment on the objectives achieved.
Communication skills: The interaction with the teacher and colleagues will be stimulated to increase students' communication skills.
Theory lessons and resolutions of issues and problems in the classroom. Trials in Itinere. Final exam based on written and oral exam.
Elements of measurement theory. Measurement tools: sensitivity, precision, accuracy. Distribution of Gauss. Propagation of measurement errors. Physical quantities, reference samples and units of measurement. International System. Dimensional analysis and conversion of units of measurement. Review of vector analysis. Recalls of kinematics of the material point: rectilinear motion with constant acceleration, uniform rectilinear motion, uniformly accelerated rectilinear motion, uniform circular motion and kinematics of simple harmonic motion. Recall of dynamics of the material point: first principle of dynamics, definition of momentum and its conservation for isolated systems, second principle of dynamics, third principle of dynamics, pressure, relation between force and impulse, tension exerted by a rope, force of static and kinetic friction, dynamics of simple harmonic motion, mass-spring system, simple pendulum. Definition of angular momentum of a material point and moment of a force. Definition of work of a force and power. Kinetic and potential energy. Relationship between energy and work. Conservative forces and the principle of conservation of mechanical energy. Definition of potential energy function. Shock theory, direct and oblique collisions, elastic and inelastic collisions. Systems of material points: definition of center of mass, properties of the center of mass and its motion. Rotations of a rigid body around a fixed axis: moment of inertia. Oscillating phenomena: oscillating systems, the harmonic oscillator, simple harmonic motion and its correlation with the uniform circular motion, damped harmonic motion, forced oscillations and resonance. Wave phenomena; mechanical waves, wave classification, moving waves, propagation along a tightrope, wave equation, energy, superposition principle, Fourier analysis, interference, stationary waves, resonance. Acoustic waves, speed of sound, power and intensity, beats, Doppler effect. Fluid mechanics: definition and classification of fluids, static of fluids, pressure of a fluid, fluids in quiet subject to gravity: Stevino's law, Archimedes' thrust, surface tension and capillarity. Dynamics of ideal fluids in stationary motion, definition of line and flow tube, Bernoulli's theorem, Torricelli theorem and Venturi tube, real fuides, vortex regime, Stokes law. Introduction to thermodynamics: zero principle of thermodynamics, definition of temperature and choice of the thermometric scale, constant volume thermometer, Celsius and Kelvin scale.
Kinetic theory of perfect gases, molecular properties of gases, free medium path, microscopic description of pressure, distribution of molecular gas velocities, intermolecular forces, energy equalization theorem. Laws of Boyle-Mariotte, Charles and Gay-Lussac, perfect state of gas equation. Work of thermodynamic transformations, heat, internal energy, first principle of thermodynamics, heat transfer, heat capacity, specific thermal capacity at constant pressure or volume, Mayer relation for perfect gases, latent heat. Thermal expansion. Heat transferred into any thermodynamic transformations for a perfect gas, adiabatic transformations, cyclic transformations and definition of efficiency or coefficient of performance, ideal Carnot cycle. Second principle of thermodynamics: Kelvin-Planck and Clausius postulates and their equivalence. Theorem of Carnot and real machines, theorem and inequality of Clausius, definition of entropy and its properties, variation of entropy of the universe, real gases and thermodynamic potentials
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