Educational goals: to provide the student with a solid background in those chemical principles that are particularly important to Analytical Chemistry with particular regard to the knowledge of the Solution Equilibria
Lessons and exercises
Introduction. Definition of Analytical chemistry. Qualitative and quantitative methods. Analyses and determinations. Overall analytical procedure. Application of specific analytical methodologies to the solution of practical problems.Measurements and errors. Accuracy and precision. Classification of errors in Analytical Chemistry: gross, systematic and random errors. Report of the results and propagation error law. Most utilized Statistical Tests in Analytical Chemistry.
Solution equilibria. Definition of chemical equilibrium. Equilibrium constants. Activity and Activity Coefficient. Thermodynamic and Stoichiometric Constants. Ionic Strength. Debye and Hückel theory. Calculation of activity coefficients as a function of the Ionic Strength.
Acid-Base Equilibria. Definition of Acid and Base according to Arrhenius, Brönsted and Lewis. Conjugate acid-base pairs. Strength of Acids and Bases. The concept of pH. Error on the measurement of pH. The Concept of Neutral Solution. Calculation of pH. Electroneutrality of the solutions. Mass Balance, charge balance. Strong Acids and Bases solutions. Monobasic acids. Degree of Dissociation. Weak acid and weak base solutions. Buffer Solutions: buffer power. Polyprotic acids. Poliacidic Bases. Diprotic and polyprotic Acid solutions. Calculation of the species concentrations in polyprotic acid solutions as afunction of pH. Poliacidic bases solutions. Ampholytes Solutions. Acid-base mixtures.
Solubility Equilibria. Quantitative relationship between solubility and solubility product. Common ion effect. Role of Acid-Base reactions on solubility equilibria.
Redox equilibria. Standard potential. Nernst equation. Formal potential. Equilibrium constants as a function of standard potential. Redox indicators.
Complexation equilibria. Definition of a Complex. Monodentate and polydentate ligands. Chelating agents. Effects of Acid-Base reactions on complexation equilibria. Auxiliary ligands. Conditional constants. Minimum Operating pH. Metallochromic indicators.
Theoretical methods of solvent extraction, influence of pH and formation constants, selective extraction. Principles of countercurrent extraction. Theoretical distribution in an extraction process with two solutes.
1. Skoog - West – Holler Fondamenti di Chimica Analitica- EDISES Editore
2. Metodi Analitici per le Acque” (ISBN 88-448-0083-7)
3. F.Balestrieri ,D. Marini Metodi di Analisi Chimica dei prodotti alimentari. Monolite editrice
4. S.E. Manahan Chimica Dell’ambiente Piccin.
5. Food Analysis , S. S. Nielsen ISBN 8342-1203-X