FISIOLOGIA UMANA II - channel 4

BIO/09 - 7 CFU - 1° Semester

Teaching Staff

AGOSTINO PALMERI
Email: apalmeri@unict.it
Office: Ed. 1 - I piano - Policlinico - Via s. Sofia
Phone: 095-3781333
Office Hours: venerdì ore 11-13
DANIELA PUZZO
Email: danypuzzo@yahoo.it
Office: Viale Andrea Doria,6 Ed. 2 Sez. Fisiologia
Phone: 0957384033
Office Hours: su appuntamento


Learning Objectives

Knowledge of the mechanisms involved in the maintenance of homeostasis in relation to internal and environmental modifications.
Knowledge of the electrophysiological and functional mechanisms in single cells, tissues, organs and their interactions.
Knowledge of the mechanisms and relations of vegetative functions and milestones of endocrinology. Knowledge of neurobiological and psychophysiological basis of behavior and emotional and cognitive interaction between the subject and the environment.
Knowledge of the experimental approach in neuroscience and the chance to translate results from bench to bedside.


Course Structure

Lecture-style instruction.



Detailed Course Content

ENDOCRINE SYSTEM

Generalities on hormones. Definition and hormone classification. Biosynthesis, transport and secretion. Hormonal activation and inactivation. Mechanisms of action. Hormonal regulation of homeostasis. Hormonal interactions. Endocrine methodologies.

Neuroendocrinology. Functional anatomy of hypothalamus, pituitary and ependymal organs of the third ventricle. Pathophysiology.

Thyroid gland. Functional anatomy. Iodine metabolism. Regulation of thyroid function. Thyroid hormones and their physiological effects. Thyroid interaction with other endocrine systems. Pathophysiology.

Adrenal cortex. Functional anatomy. General biosynthesis of steroids. ACTH. Glucocorticoids. Mineralocorticoids. Adrenal sex steroids. Pathophysiology.

Phosphocalcic metabolism. Metabolism of calcium, phosphorus and other skeletal ions. Bone physiology. PTH. Calcitonin. Vitamin D. Other hormones affecting bone and mineral homeostasis. Pathophysiology.

Endocrine pancreas. Functional anatomy. Beta cells and insulin. Insulin functions. Alpha cells and glucagon. Glucagon mechanism of action. Relations between pancreatic glucagon and enteroglucagon. Delta cells and somatostatin. Pathophysiology.

Endocrine role of prostaglandins.

 

REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM

Function of female reproductive organs. Ovarian cycle. Ovaries function. Puberty. Menopause. Fallopian tubes functions. Menstrual cycle. Estrous cycle. Chemistry and functions of the steroidal ovarian organs. Physiology of sexuality. Contraception. Extra-ovarian hormonal influences on the ovary. Physiology of pregnancy. Fetal nutrition. Fetal circulation and respiration. Lactation and its control.

Function of male reproductive organs. Spermatogenesis. Seminal ducts and glands. Puberty. Physiology of sexuality. Extra-testicular hormonal influences on the testicle. Actions of androgens and effects testicle removal.

 

NERVOUS SYSTEM

Stimulus transduction into bioelectrical event. Receptors: classification, mechanisms of action and adaptation. Exteroceptors, proprioceptors and interoceptors. The information encoded as a firing sequence. Nerve fibers.

Spinal cord. Reflex activity. Extension and stretching reflex. Flexor withdrawal reflex. Alpha-gamma loop. Somatosensory system pathways. Epicritic and protopathic sensibility. Spinal cord pattern of lamination. Hodology of spinal cord ascending pathways. Hemi-section. Spinal shock.

Thalamus. Specific and non-specific nuclei. Thalamo-cortical radiations. Sensory functions. Epicritic sensitivity (touch and cenesthesia) and protopathic sensibility (thermal and pain). Proprioception in muscles, tendons and joints. Ear and hearing. Eye and Vision. Taste. Smell.

Descending projection systems. Corticospinal, rubrospinal, reticulospinal, vestibulospinal, and interstitiospinal tracts. Extrapyramidal system definition. Basal ganglia: anatomofunctional organization.

Muscle tone. Tone and posture. Segmental and suprasegmental regulation of muscle tone. Decerebrate rigidity.

Cerebellum. Functional anatomy of archi-, paleo- and neo-cerebellum. Effects of total or partial cerebellectomy.

Vestibular system. Structure and function. Static and dynamic vestibular reflexes. Motion sickness (kinetosis). Nystagmus. Caloric stimulation. Response to linear and angular accelerations.

Vigilance. Sleep and its stages. Electroencephalographic rhythms. Arousal reaction. Seizure activity of the cerebral cortex.

Neurophysiology of behavior. Generalities. Drinking, eating and sexual behavior. Anxiety and aggression.

Conditioning. Classical and operant conditioning. Autogenic training. Adaptation and learning.

Higher functions of the nervous system. Association areas integration processes. Learning and memory. Emotions. Brain lateralization and dominance. Language centers. Effects of commissurotomy in humans (split-brain). Consciousness.

Cranial nerves. Description and function.

Cerebrospinal fluid. Chemical and physical characteristics and functions. Bloodbrain barrier, blood-CSF and CSF-brain.

Autonomic nervous system. Functional anatomy of sympathetic and parasympathetic systems. Viscero-somatic and somato-visceral reflexes.

 

REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM

Function of female reproductive organs. Ovarian cycle. Ovaries function. Puberty. Menopause. Fallopian tubes functions. Menstrual cycle. Estrous cycle. Chemistry and functions of the steroidal ovarian organs. Physiology of sexuality. Contraception. Extra-ovarian hormonal influences on the ovary. Physiology of pregnancy. Fetal nutrition. Fetal circulation and respiration. Lactation and its control.

Function of male reproductive organs. Spermatogenesis. Seminal ducts and glands. Puberty. Physiology of sexuality. Extra-testicular hormonal influences on the testicle. Actions of androgens and effects testicle removal.

 

NERVOUS SYSTEM

Stimulus transduction into bioelectrical event. Receptors: classification, mechanisms of action and adaptation. Exteroceptors, proprioceptors and interoceptors. The information encoded as a firing sequence. Nerve fibers.

Spinal cord. Reflex activity. Extension and stretching reflex. Flexor withdrawal reflex. Alpha-gamma loop. Somatosensory system pathways. Epicritic and protopathic sensibility. Spinal cord pattern of lamination. Hodology of spinal cord ascending pathways. Hemi-section. Spinal shock.

Thalamus. Specific and non-specific nuclei. Thalamo-cortical radiations. Sensory functions. Epicritic sensitivity (touch and cenesthesia) and protopathic sensibility (thermal and pain). Proprioception in muscles, tendons and joints. Ear and hearing. Eye and Vision. Taste. Smell.

Descending projection systems. Corticospinal, rubrospinal, reticulospinal, vestibulospinal, and interstitiospinal tracts. Extrapyramidal system definition. Basal ganglia: anatomofunctional organization.

Muscle tone. Tone and posture. Segmental and suprasegmental regulation of muscle tone. Decerebrate rigidity.

Cerebellum. Functional anatomy of archi-, paleo- and neo-cerebellum. Effects of total or partial cerebellectomy.

Vestibular system. Structure and function. Static and dynamic vestibular reflexes. Motion sickness (kinetosis). Nystagmus. Caloric stimulation. Response to linear and angular accelerations.

Vigilance. Sleep and its stages. Electroencephalographic rhythms. Arousal reaction. Seizure activity of the cerebral cortex.

Neurophysiology of behavior. Generalities. Drinking, eating and sexual behavior. Anxiety and aggression.

Conditioning. Classical and operant conditioning. Autogenic training. Adaptation and learning.

Higher functions of the nervous system. Association areas integration processes. Learning and memory. Emotions. Brain lateralization and dominance. Language centers. Effects of commissurotomy in humans (split-brain). Consciousness.

Cranial nerves. Description and function.

Cerebrospinal fluid. Chemical and physical characteristics and functions. Bloodbrain barrier, blood-CSF and CSF-brain.

Autonomic nervous system. Functional anatomy of sympathetic and parasympathetic systems. Viscero-somatic and somato-visceral reflexes.



Textbook Information

Fisiologia medica, by F. Conti – EdiErmes
Principi di Neuroscienze, di E. Kandel e JH Schwartz - CEA
Fisiologia Medica by Guyton e Hall - Elsevier
Fisiologia e Biofisica medica, by F. Baldissera – Poletto Editore




Open in PDF format Versione in italiano