CHIMICA E PROPEDEUTICA BIOCHIMICA - channel 4

BIO/10 - 6 CFU - 1° Semester

Teaching Staff

GIOVANNI LI VOLTI


Learning Objectives

The more complex activities of living organisms have their foundation in chemical processes. One of the most fascinating fields of study is the detailed research on how chemical reactions can affect the behaviors we observe in living organisms. In order to understand and use the contents of biomedical and dental disciplines such as biochemistry, molecular biology, physiology, molecular pathology, molecular pharmacology, it is necessary to know their chemical bases. They include the processing and derivation of the properties of gases, liquids, solutions, organic molecular structures and their determinism in macromolecular systems, the laws of biological homeostasis, biological oxidation, membrane phenomena, dental materials.


Course Structure

GENERAL CHEMISTRY Notes on the structure of the atom: atomic particles and atomic orbital model. Radioactivity: nature of radiation and their biological effects. Stable and unstable isotopes, their importance in biology and medicine. Atomic properties. Electronic configurations and periodic system. The chemical bond: ionic bond, covalent, coordinative, hydrogen bond, Van der Waals forces. Resonance. Geometry of the simplest molecules. Hybridization of orbitals. Coordination complexes and biological macromolecules (hemoglobin, cytochromes, vitamin B12, etc.). Chemical systematics: acid and basic oxides, hydroxides, acids; neutral, acid and basic salts; peroxides, hydrides. Characteristics and general properties of the solid, liquid and gaseous state: laws of ideal gases and their importance in respiration. State passages. Water state diagram. The solutions: water as a solvent. Molarity, normality, molality, molar fraction. Concentration of some electrolytes in biological liquids. Colligative properties: cryoscopy, osmotic pressure and its biological meaning. Hypertonic, isotonic, hypotonic solutions and their use in medicine. Concept of osmole. Electrolytes. Colligative properties of electrolytic solutions: degree of dissociation, ionic force. Chemical reactions: kinetics and factors that influence the reaction rate. Reaction order. Reaction energy and catalysis. Importance of catalysis in biology: notes on enzymatic catalysis. Chemical equilibria: law of mass action. Principle of mobile equilibrium. Chemical equilibria in solution: ionic and non. Notions of thermodynamics: concepts of enthalpy, entropy and free energy. Law of Hess. Notions of bioenergetics: coupled reactions, compounds with high energy potential (ATP, GTP, etc.). Oxidation-reduction reactions: oxidation number, redox potential and its measurement, its variation as a function of pH. Potentiometric pH measurement. Redox reactions of living matter. Acids and bases: water as electrolyte, pH. Strength of an acid and a base. Equilibria in solution: hydrolysis, pK, buffer systems and physiological buffers. Titration curves of acids and bases, ampholytes. Importance of acid-base balance in the body. Solubility product. Colloidal solutions: characteristics, classification, study methods.

BIOINORGANIC CHEMISTRY Fundamentals of compounds of the elements of greatest biological interest: Na, K, Li, Ca, Mg, Cu, Mn, Fe, Co, H, O, C, N, S, P, Cl, Br. ORGANIC CHEMISTRY Classification of compounds based on functional groups. Classification of organic reactions. Biological importance of the same. Isomers. Structural cis- and trans-, tautomerism, optical isomerism (stereochemical series); relevance of the isomerism to the properties of the compounds of biological and medical interest. Electronic effects: inductive, mesomeric, steric. Electrophilic and nucleophilic reagents. Organic reactions: redox reactions; substitution reactions (SN1 and SN2); simple nucleophilic addition reactions to the carbonyl bond; electrophilic addition reactions followed by elimination reaction; electrophilic addition reactions to alkenes and alkynes; electrophilic substitution reactions; orienting effects; polymerization reactions. Organic compounds. Alkanes, alkenes, dienes, alkynes, cycloaliphatic hydrocarbons; nomenclature, physical and chemical properties. Arenas: nomenclature, physical and chemical properties. Alkyl and aryl halides: nomenclature, chemical properties. Mono and polyvalent aliphatic and aromatic alcohols: nomenclature, classification, chemical properties. Thioalcohols. Phenols, ethers and thioethers: nomenclature, physical and chemical properties. Aliphatic and aromatic amines: nomenclature, classification, chemical properties; quaternary ammonium salts, amino-alcohols, diamines. Recognition reactions. Aliphatic and aromatic aldehydes and ketones: properties; aldol condensation. Aliphatic and aromatic acids: chemical properties, inductive effect on acidity; saturated and unsaturated mono and polycarboxylic acids; malonic syntheses, oxyacids (lactides and lactones), ketoacids (keto-enol tautomerism), enulfosfates. Acid derivatives: esters, phosphoric esters; starches, anhydrides: simple, mixed, cyclic; nitriles, hydrazides: chemical properties and recognition reactions; acyl chlorides. Lipids: glycerides, oils, fats, saponification; phospholipids and sphingolipids; notes on the biological role of this class of compounds. Amino acids: electrolytic behavior. Carb-amidic bond. Peptides. Proteins and their structure. Glucides: nomenclature, solubility, classification; configuration of risks, mutation, chemical properties; di- and polysaccharides; amino sugars. Heterocyclic compounds with 5 and 6 terms, with condensed rings: aromaticity, acidity (furan, pyrrole, thiophene, thiazole, imidazole, oxazole, pyridine, pyrimidine, purine, indole, quinoline, isoquinoline, nicotinic acid, isonicotinic acid). Purine and pyrimidine bases: their tautomerism. Nucleic acids. Dosages of organic compounds of biological significance in the chemical-clinical analysis.



Detailed Course Content

GENERAL CHEMISTRY Notes on the structure of the atom: atomic particles and atomic orbital model. Radioactivity: nature of radiation and their biological effects. Stable and unstable isotopes, their importance in biology and medicine. Atomic properties. Electronic configurations and periodic system. The chemical bond: ionic bond, covalent, coordinative, hydrogen bond, Van der Waals forces. Resonance. Geometry of the simplest molecules. Hybridization of orbitals. Coordination complexes and biological macromolecules (hemoglobin, cytochromes, vitamin B12, etc.). Chemical systematics: acid and basic oxides, hydroxides, acids; neutral, acid and basic salts; peroxides, hydrides. Characteristics and general properties of the solid, liquid and gaseous state: laws of ideal gases and their importance in respiration. State passages. Water state diagram. The solutions: water as a solvent. Molarity, normality, molality, molar fraction. Concentration of some electrolytes in biological liquids. Colligative properties: cryoscopy, osmotic pressure and its biological meaning. Hypertonic, isotonic, hypotonic solutions and their use in medicine. Concept of osmole. Electrolytes. Colligative properties of electrolytic solutions: degree of dissociation, ionic force. Chemical reactions: kinetics and factors that influence the reaction rate. Reaction order. Reaction energy and catalysis. Importance of catalysis in biology: notes on enzymatic catalysis. Chemical equilibria: law of mass action. Principle of mobile equilibrium. Chemical equilibria in solution: ionic and non. Notions of thermodynamics: concepts of enthalpy, entropy and free energy. Law of Hess. Notions of bioenergetics: coupled reactions, compounds with high energy potential (ATP, GTP, etc.). Oxidation-reduction reactions: oxidation number, redox potential and its measurement, its variation as a function of pH. Potentiometric pH measurement. Redox reactions of living matter. Acids and bases: water as electrolyte, pH. Strength of an acid and a base. Equilibria in solution: hydrolysis, pK, buffer systems and physiological buffers. Titration curves of acids and bases, ampholytes. Importance of acid-base balance in the body. Solubility product. Colloidal solutions: characteristics, classification, study methods.

BIOINORGANIC CHEMISTRY Fundamentals of compounds of the elements of greatest biological interest: Na, K, Li, Ca, Mg, Cu, Mn, Fe, Co, H, O, C, N, S, P, Cl, Br. ORGANIC CHEMISTRY Classification of compounds based on functional groups. Classification of organic reactions. Biological importance of the same. Isomers. Structural cis- and trans-, tautomerism, optical isomerism (stereochemical series); relevance of the isomerism to the properties of the compounds of biological and medical interest. Electronic effects: inductive, mesomeric, steric. Electrophilic and nucleophilic reagents. Organic reactions: redox reactions; substitution reactions (SN1 and SN2); simple nucleophilic addition reactions to the carbonyl bond; electrophilic addition reactions followed by elimination reaction; electrophilic addition reactions to alkenes and alkynes; electrophilic substitution reactions; orienting effects; polymerization reactions. Organic compounds. Alkanes, alkenes, dienes, alkynes, cycloaliphatic hydrocarbons; nomenclature, physical and chemical properties. Arenas: nomenclature, physical and chemical properties. Alkyl and aryl halides: nomenclature, chemical properties. Mono and polyvalent aliphatic and aromatic alcohols: nomenclature, classification, chemical properties. Thioalcohols. Phenols, ethers and thioethers: nomenclature, physical and chemical properties. Aliphatic and aromatic amines: nomenclature, classification, chemical properties; quaternary ammonium salts, amino-alcohols, diamines. Recognition reactions. Aliphatic and aromatic aldehydes and ketones: properties; aldol condensation. Aliphatic and aromatic acids: chemical properties, inductive effect on acidity; saturated and unsaturated mono and polycarboxylic acids; malonic syntheses, oxyacids (lactides and lactones), ketoacids (keto-enol tautomerism), enulfosfates. Acid derivatives: esters, phosphoric esters; starches, anhydrides: simple, mixed, cyclic; nitriles, hydrazides: chemical properties and recognition reactions; acyl chlorides. Lipids: glycerides, oils, fats, saponification; phospholipids and sphingolipids; notes on the biological role of this class of compounds. Amino acids: electrolytic behavior. Carb-amidic bond. Peptides. Proteins and their structure. Glucides: nomenclature, solubility, classification; configuration of risks, mutation, chemical properties; di- and polysaccharides; amino sugars. Heterocyclic compounds with 5 and 6 terms, with condensed rings: aromaticity, acidity (furan, pyrrole, thiophene, thiazole, imidazole, oxazole, pyridine, pyrimidine, purine, indole, quinoline, isoquinoline, nicotinic acid, isonicotinic acid). Purine and pyrimidine bases: their tautomerism. Nucleic acids. Dosages of organic compounds of biological significance in the chemical-clinical analysis.



Textbook Information

R.C. Bauer Introduzione alla Chimica (Piccin)

Masterton- Hurley Chimica Principi e Reazioni (Piccin)

J. R. Amend, B. P. Mundy, M. T. Arnold - Chimica Generale, Organica e Biologica – Piccin

Denniston – Chimica Generale, Chimica Organica e Propedeutica Biochimica- McGraw-Hill




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