The purpose of the Physics module is to teach basic physics and mathematics with simple applications to biomedical problems. The homogeneity of the preparation for all students is to be obtained in view of the specific knowledge required in the continuation of the Degree Course. In particular, the student must acquire knowledge of some basic laws and physical techniques for the understanding of physiological, biological and medical processes and will have to learn basic concepts useful for the correct use of the instrumentation used in the professional field.
Objective of the course is the acquisition of methods for the analysis of biological sequences and structures and the capability of searching in in biological databases (eg. Genes, sequences, functional domains). Starting from primary sequences of nucleic acids or proteins can hypothesize the function, evolutionary history and structure. The tools used to achieve these objectives are the public databases and the tools for the analysis and visualization of such kind of data.
Knowledge and understanding: Students will gain knowledge on methods for the analysis of biological sequences and for searching in biological databases. In particular students will be able to search on database of sequences and domains. Also, public databases available on NCBI will be presented together with software for the and the analysis and visualization of biological data. Finally, students will acquire the basic tools for the analysis of the transcriptome.
Applying knowledge and understanding: identify the appropriate tools to manipulate data and extract knowledge underlying; solve problems through the use of appropriate software in bioinformatics.
Making judgments: Through guided exercises, the students will acquire the basic skills necessary to deal with the analysis of new biological sequences, hypothesizing the function, study the transcriptome.
Communication skills: the student will acquire the necessary communication skills and expressive appropriateness in the use of technical language within the general framework of the analysis of biological data.
Learning skills: The course aims, as the goal, to provide students with the necessary basic theoretical methods and practices in order to address and solve problems concerning the analysis of biological data.
The course will provide basic elements to let the student be able to describe individual and population based biological events through syntetic indeces. Moreover, the student should be able to identify and use elementary metodologies of analysis of numerical data.
Classroom lecturers using blackboard and tracing papers
Physical quantities and their measurement - Physical quantities, units and measurement systems, dimensional equations. Measurement tools. Systematic errors and random errors. Average and standard deviation. Functional relationships and graphical representations. Scalar and vector quantities. Operations between vectors. Recalls of mechanics and notions of Biomechanics - Kinematics. Circular motion and harmonic motion. Amount of motion. Principles of dynamics. Work. Power. Power and efficiency. Moment. Static. Elasticity. Physiological stasis. Bone fractures (generalities). Recalls on fluids and applications in biological systems - Density. Viscosity. Hydrostatic pressure. Static of fluids. Stevino's law. Pascal's principle. Principle of Archimedes. Drip. Transfusion. Withdrawal. Drainage. Dynamics of ideal liquids. Bernoulli's theorem. Aneurysm and stenosis. Real liquids. Poiseuille report. Hydraulic resistance and Reynolds number, Sphygmomanometry. Thermometry and thermoregulation - temperature and heat. Temperature measurement. Thermometric scales. Clinical thermometers. Equivalence principle. Specific heat. Thermal balance. State steps. Heat transmission. Energy balance in the human body. Basal metabolic power. The electric and bioelectric phenomena - charges and electric fields. Capacitance and capacitors. Electric current. Laws of Ohm. Elementary circuits. Joule effect. RC circuits. Pacemaker. Defibrillator. Risks related to the use of electricity. Waves and radiations - Wave phenomena. Period and frequency. Amplitude and energy. Mechanical waves. The sound. Intensity of sound. Sound pressure and decibels. Stethoscope. Ultrasound in medicine. Electromagnetic waves. The electromagnetic spectrum. Eye and color vision. Radiation in diagnostics and in therapy. X-ray diagnostics. Radioisotopes and nuclear medicine. Radiotherapy. Biological effects of ionizing radiation. Overview of dosimetry and radioprotection.
The course is organized into lectures that provide a theoretical basis coupled with exercises for learning the use of bioinformatics tools in the field of medicine.
1. Measurers: numerical, ordinal and nominal
2. Descriptive measurers: central tendency and variability
3. Probability and Bayes Theorem
4. Probability distributions: binomial, Poisson and gaussian
5. Hypothesis tests and their meaning
6. Student t test, chi square
7: Correlation and regression
8. Epidemiology: sensitivity, specificity, predictive values, incidence and prevalence rates
D. Scannicchio - Fisica Biomedica - EdiSES, Napoli 2013
M. Pagano, K. Gavreau
Editor: Idelson Gnocchi
Wayne W. Daniel, Chad L. Cross