Concept of health, determinants of health, health promotion. Disease and its causes. Prevention and control of diseases, levels of prevention. Health demography. Health indicators. Principles of epidemiological methodology. Observational and experimental epidemiological studies. Nursing assistance based on evidence of efficacy. Principles of epidemiology of infectious and non-infectious diseases. Hygiene applied to welfare facilities. Transmission models and measures to prevent major infectious diseases.
Epidemiology and prevention of chronic degenerative diseases.
Management of clinical risk and safety of patients and operators. Risk management in the hospital. Hospital hygiene. Hospital waste management.
Community medicine. Damage to health from wrong lifestyle. Promotion and protection of maternal and child health.
Environmental hygiene: primary prevention and physical environment: atmospheric air and water
The aim of the course is to provide information and knowledge about workplace-related pathologies (accidents and illnesses) as well as to become familiar with prevention principles, with particular reference to risk assessment and preventive measure adoption.
Students will have to learn methods and techniques to collect work history, identify environmental and occupational risks and possible relationships with genetic, demographic, socio-economic, psychological and cultural factors, related to health or illness statuses, as well as to look into the possible non-specific effects of occupational risk factors, especially for degenerative chronic diseases.
The main etiologically diagnostic aspects of occupational medicine will be dealt with, and so will the epidemiology of con-causally work-related diseases. Also, the most frequent professional diseases and work accidents will be classified. The main analysis method and work risk assessment instruments will be provided, that is limit exposure levels, environmental/biological monitoring and healthcare surveillance. Also, occupational risk in/formation, safety and health law guidelines in work places, primary and secondary prevention of occupational diseases, role and duties of the competent physician will be discussed.
The objectives of this module are focused on learning and the conception of the logic that regulates basic computing, elaboration data, structure, classification and typology of networks.
The course will provide basic theoretical knowledge in Medical Statistics (for the study of biological, biomedical, social and health, clinical phenomena, etc.) using the explanation of the statistical concepts of descriptive and inferential statistics applying them in a real study. In fact, the course is built around a scientific article reporting an observational study (prevalence) that students together with the teacher will study both theoretically and practically with Excel software, focusing on the research question, on methods (type, study design, questionnaire, permissions on data, etc.) and on collection, control, encryption, analysis and interpretation of data, and finally on the reporting of the results through tables and graphics.
Face to face lessons. Reading out loud of a scientific article. Interactive practice on the Excel software. Preparation of their versions of the materials at the base of the study useful for the ongoing lessons (questionnaire, data sheet, etc.).
Definition, characteristics, contents of hygiene.
Measures of frequency of health events.
Epidemiological studies. Risk assessment.
Primary, secondary, tertiary prevention.
Infectious risk: main measures to eliminate or contain the infectious risk.
Epidemiology and prevention of the most frequent infectious diseases.
Principles of epidemiology and prevention of the main chronic degenerative diseases.
Environmental hygiene: atmospheric air, atmospheric pollution and effects
on human health.
Water: general characteristics, water intended for human consumption.
Health Promotion. Health Organization Names.
Risk management principles
The hospital environment: microclimate, physical, chemical and infectious risk.
Hospital waste management.
Epidemiology and prevention of assistance-related infections.
History and evolution of Occupational Medicine: prevention service legislation and organization; work accidents and professional diseases insurance practices. Risk assessment procedure; exposure times and limit levels/values.
Primary and secondary prevention principles. Healthcare surveillance and duties of competent physician. Biological monitoring procedures. General and individual preventive practices and first aid action organization. Biological risk and vaccinations. Physical risks: noise, vibrations, ionizing-non-ionizing radiations, microclimate and compressed atmosphere. Ergonomy principles: postures and work. Workstation, shift and night work risks. Assessment of risks in manual loads handling and in repetitive movements of upper limbs with associated pathologies. Organizational wellness and its associated work stress. Health promotion in working places.
Main dust/fibre and professional allergene exposure–related pathologies; indoor and outdoor pollutants. Exposure risks to chemical, mutagen and carcenogenic agents.
Principles of Industrial Hygiene and hints of Statistics. Risks in the main working cycles. Guidelines on safety and health in working places.
• Information processing systems;
• Hardware, software and their stratification;
• Operating Systems: fundamental functions and their evolutions;
• Bits, Bytes and numbers connected to them;
• Classification, Type and Network Levels;
• E-mail & Protocol;
Critical reading of a scientific article from 2011 on the Working ability perceived by nurses and indexed on PubMed, commented in several aspects such as:
METHODOLOGICAL ASPECTS Planning a scientific research: goal (why?), The type of study and associated indicators, statistical universe, the target population and sampling techniques, representativity and bias (who, how, where, when?)
COLLECTION, ORGANIZATION, CODING AND CONTROL OF DATA qualitative and quantitative (discrete and continuous) variables, measurement scales (nominal, ordinal, interval to, the report) of the observations. Survey. Insertion and data control (example on 30 subjects) on Excel with the appropriate functionalities.
DATA SYNTHESIS absolute frequencies, relative or percentages. Distributions of each frequencies and bivariate (double entry table or contingency tables). Distribution in classes. indices of central tendency (mean, median and mode). The quantiles. Measures of dispersion (min-max, variance and standard deviation, inter-quartile range).
STATISTICAL INFERENCE AND HYPOTHESIS TESTING
sampling or systematic errors, random error, concept of variability. The binomial probability distribution (discrete), standardized Gaussian, Student (continue), the Chi-square. Hypothesis testing (null and alternative hypothesis, alpha and beta error types, power of a test).With Excel: processing z test, Student's t (for means) and chi-square (for frequencies). Estimation of odds-ratio or OR, the OR confidence interval and p-value associated.
PLOTTING With Excel: Charts bar (overlapping) and pie. Histograms. Charts points or dispersion graph. Line graphs for time series. Box Plots
"Igiene per le professioni sanitarie" - Autore: E.Lanciotti - Ed. Mc Graw Hill
P.B Lantieri, D. Risso, G. Ravera. Elementi di Statistica Medica. Mc Graw-Hill 2007.
R. Bolzani, R. Canestrari. Logica del test statistico. Casa editrice Ambrosiana, 2011.
P. Poli. Excel 2016 Formule e Analisi dei dati. Hoepli 2016.