Physiology studies the human vital functions, even in comparative manner. It discusses how the human organism obtains and maintains the homeostasis of its internal environment at molecular, cellular and tissue levels, in the context of the changes of the surrounding environment.
1. Endocrine System
- Generalities on hormones. Definition and classification of hormones. Mechanisms of action of hormones.
- Hypothalamic hormones
- Adenohypophysis; neurohypophysis
- The thyroid
- The adrenal cortex
- The phosphocalcic metabolism. Calcitonin. The parathyroid hormone. Vitamins D. Adjustment of serum calcium.
- The endocrine pancreas
- Function of the male and female reproductive organs
2. Nervous System.
- The spinal cord. Alpha and gamma motor neurons. Muscle receptors, muscle spindles and Golgi tendon organs. Muscle reflexes: stretch reflex and flexor reflex.
- Tactile sensitivity
- The thermal and pain sensitivity
- Sensory functions. The ear and hearing. The eye and vision.
- Motor control:
- Cortical areas
- Autonomic nervous system. Functional anatomy of the sympathetic and parasympathetic system. The adrenal medulla.
3. Muscle contraction
AA.VV. - FISIOLOGIA UMANA (Fondamenti) - I Ed. - Casa Ed. Edi-Ermes, 2018
Costanzo L. – FISIOLOGIA – V Ed. - Casa Ed. Edra, 2017