The specific training objectives, which are functional to the professional figure that the course intends to train, that is the expert in the field of electronic electrical measurements, sensors and transduction elements inherent the field of radiology medical for pictures and radiotherapy.
In this context, the course aims to train technicians with a suitable basic scientific training and adequate competences of the general technical-scientific content and methods of electronic engineering with particular emphasis on the basic of metrology.
To acquire knowledge about the following topics:
The main objective of the lectures is the knowledge of the physics fundamentals of instrumentation useful to medical diagnostics and therapy.
Lectures and tests (entrance, on going and end-of-course verification).
Outline of measurement systems
Block diagram of a measurement system. Influence and Interference. Compensation process.
Examples of instruments: the mAmpere-meter, the pressure gauge.
Elements of Metrology
Measurements. International System of Units. Uncertainty A and B. Calibration diagram. Sensitivity and resolution in measuring instrument
The analog oscilloscope
Block diagram of the analog oscilloscope. Working principle. Main controls of the oscilloscope.
The digital oscilloscope
Block diagram of the digital oscilloscope. Sampling of an analog signal. Criteria of selecting a sampling procedure. Comparison between analog and digital oscilloscope.
Virtual Instruments PC-based, LabView and acquisition boards.
Resistance Temperature Detectors (RTDs), strain gauge, accelerometer, fluxgate magnetometer, conditioning circuits.
Interactions between ionizing radiations with human body
Physical, Chemical and Biological effects of ionizing radiations
LET; EBR; OER
Principles of Dose fractionation and clinical applications
Radiosensibility and radiocurability of biological tissues and cancer
Principles of clinical radiotherapy
Theoretical principles of radioprotection
X-RAYS DIAGNOSTICS: X-rays radiation. X-ray tube. Production of X-rays spectra. X-ray absorption. Radiological imaging. The image intensifier.
DIAGNOSTIC NUCLEAR MEDICINE: Radioactivity. The radioactive law of decay. Use of radionuclides in medical diagnosis. Effective half-life. Scintigraphy.
TOMOGRAPHIC IMAGES: The anatomical planes. Computed Tomography (CT). Single photon emission tomography (SPECT). Positron emission tomography (PET).
MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING: Radio Waves. Gyromagnetic ratio and Larmor frequency. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR). Devices and Magnetic Resonance Imaging systems.
RADIATION THERAPY: The radiation dose. Therapeutic ratio. Conventional radiotherapy. Brachytherapy and radiometabolic therapy. Radiotherapy with external beams. The LINAC.
A. Brandolini, R. Ottoboni, Fondamenti di metrologia, società editrice Esculapio
G. Iuculano, D.Mirri, Misure elettroniche, CEDAM
E. O. Doebelin, Measurement systems, McGraw Hill
Norme UNI 4546, lecture notes
Diagnostica per immagini e Radioterapia - Cittadini
D. Scannicchio, Fisica Biomedica, EdiSES, Third Edition, 2013
Lecture notes provided during the course.