make known to the student the basics of nutrition. The course will also emphasize the role proper nutrition in the prevention and treatment of most diseases. Therefore, in addition to the diet to be followed in the various physiological conditions, will address topics of diet therapy related to the most common diseases.
The course aims to provide an appropriate preparation of biochemistry to the understanding of the structure and function of biological molecules, and the meaning of the main metabolic events. After completing this module, students will learn general knowledge on the molecular basis of life, from the fundamental chemical properties of the substances, the structure and function of macromolecules involved in cell life anf tissues, both at the cellular level is extracellular, the metabolic transformations of biomolecules necessary for the human body function. In addition, the student will know the meaning of changes in the key metabolic pathways in different physiological and pathological contexts.
Font lessons, with the support of slides and audiovisual tools. At the end of each lesson is given ample space to the comment of the covered topics .
THE BASICS OF NUTRITION
Meaning of nutrition and feeding.
Definition and classification.
Carbohydrates and dietary fiber - General. Structure. Distribution in foods. Digestion and absorption of carbohydrates. Role of carbohydrates in the body. Amount and type of carbohydrates recommended in the diet. Physiological importance of dietary fiber.
Dietary protein - General. Structure. Essential amino acids. Distribution in foods. Digestion and absorption of proteins. The role of proteins in the body. Recommended intake of protein in the diet.
Dietary lipids - General. Structure. Essential fatty acids. Distribution in foods. Digestion and absorption of lipids. Function of lipids in the diet and in the body. Lipid requirements.
Vitamins - General. Fat-soluble vitamins. Water-soluble vitamins. Digestion and absorption of vitamins. The role of vitamins in the body. Vitamin requirements.
Water - Water distribution in the body. Functions of body water.
Minerals - macroelements and microelements. Role of minerals in the body. Mineral requirements.
Primary food: milk, fish, eggs, vegetable oils.
Secondary food: alcoholic, nerve, hive products.
Mechanical phenomena of digestion: motility of the gastrointestinal tract: peristalsis; rhythmic segmentation; tonic contraction. Swallowing. Gastric motility. Intestinal motility: intestinuo small intestine, large intestine, rectum. Bowel control. Smooth muscle of the wall of the digestive tract. Mechanisms of motility.
Secretory phenomena of digestion: saliva and salivary glands; gastric juice; gastric mucosal barrier; pancreatic juice; bile; intestinal mucus; Control of secretions.
Pancreas: structure and function (exocrine and endocrine).
Liver: structure of the lobules; hepatic circulation. Functions of the liver.
Digestion and absorption of food (carbohydrates, proteins, lipids). Absorption of vitamins and minerals.
Gastrointestinal hormones: gastrin, secretin, cholecystokinin, GIP, somatostatin, motilin, VIP.
Control of food intake
Nerve centers for the regulation of food intake. Factors that regulate the amount of food intake.
ADJUSTMENT OF THE ASSUMPTION OF WATER
Water balance: intake and elimination of water. Routes of elimination of water. Hormones regulating fluid and electrolyte balance: vasopressin, renin, angiotensin, aldosterone. Nervous structures delegated to the regulation of water: thirst center.
THE ENDOCRINE SYSTEM
Homeostasis is guaranteed by the intercellular communication. Classes of hormones. Hormone secretion. Mechanisms of action of hormones. Control of endocrine activity. Pituitary gland (adeno-and neurohypophysis): hormones secreted and their functions. Thyroid hormone secretions and their functions. Adrenal (cortex and medulla): secreted hormones and their functions. Pancreas secreted hormones and their functions.
E. Carbone, F.Cicirata, G. Aicardi – FISIOLOGIA: Dalle molecole ai sistemi integrati - EdiSES
F. Evangelisti, P. Restani – PRODOTTI DIETETICI – Piccin