General paediatrics deals with the overall health (e.g., physical, mental and social health) and with the study of prevention of diseases during childhood (i.e., during the developmental age) [with developmental age we mean the period between the prenatal age (i.e., the three phases preceding birth) and the end of the natural process of physical growth and cognitive maturation (which, according to the European standards ends up at age 18 years and by the USA standards ends up at about age 20-22 years)].
Specifically, this teaching deals with:
(a) Physiology and development of the neonate (including topics dealing with neonatal pathology), the child and the adolescent;
(b) Prevention paediatrics, i.e., all medical acts and activities aimed to reduce mortality secondary to given diseases and morbidity (i.e., the frequency of given diseases) in children;
(c) Specialty paediatrics, i.e. all acute and chronic diseases affecting various organs during the developmental age: cardiology, respiratory medicine, gastroenterology, neurology, haematology, oncology, endocrinology, rheumatology, infectious diseases, and dermatology;
(d) Social paediatrics, i.e., health problems catering from the overall childhood community (prevention ans community medicine)
The course aims to provide the students with the basic knowledge of paediatrics and the fundaments of paediatrics, which is of outmost importance for those dealing with childhood and with the children’s (and adolescents’) world and more in general with their related health problems.
The course aims to provide the bases and fundaments of: (a) anatomy and physiology during development; (b) prevention and social medicine during development; (c) health education and understanding of diseases during childhood and adolescence and of the main acute and chronic conditions physically or mentally disabling children or interfering with their learning processes.
So as to provide the students with the basic and fundamental principles of paediatrics and paediatric diseases the course will deal with basic principles of anatomy and physiology in the developmental age, moving then to the main conditions affecting organs illustrating the causes and the basic mechanisms of diseases, thr social impact of diseases during childhood and the main clinical manifestations along with the most important and recent therapeutic strategies.
Thus, the topics will deal with the most frequent conditions affecting children during development. These topics will represent the most frequent medical conditions faced by psychologists. In addition the course will include basic notions of nutrition, growth and development modalities along with related neurological, behaviour and cognitive problems.
Lessons will be given by using power-point presentations and plastic anatomical models and will include clinical laboratories (e.g., held at the Unit of Clinical Pediatrics, [Building 2, 1st floor), AOU Policlinico-Vittorio Emanuele, Presidio “G. Rodolico, Via S. Sofia, 78 - Catania] providing students with practical lessons on how to examine a child and how to recognise a given disease.
Anatomy, basic embryology and physiology of the human body and organs. At the high school level.
Knowledge of the less frequent kinds of strabismus, of nystagmus, of the relationship between physiopathology of binocular vision and ocular electrophysiology, of the principles of strabismus surgery
The aim of the course is to provide the basics of visual rehabilitation, focusing on practice and exercises.
Thanks to the practical and theoretical part of the course, students will learn to be independent in the visual rehabilitation of visually impaired people; in particular in the process of strengthening and optimizing patients’ visual residue for the maintenance of their autonomy.
Students will be able to choice and suggest the most suitable prescription of the aid according to the pathology, visual residue and personal attitudes of the patient. Moreover, students will learn how the patient should use the new retinal fixation to improve and enhance the use of the prescribed aid.
Traditional (oral) lessons
SPECIALTY PAEDIATRICS: cardiology, respiratory medicine, gastroenterology, neurology, haematology, oncology, endocrinology, rheumatology, infectious diseases, and dermatology.
Retina physiopathology,optic pathway physiopathology, physiopathology of pupillary motility, development of vision, ocular electrophysiology (electroretinography, visual evoked potentials, sensorial electro-oculography, electronystagmography, motor electro-oculography) , binocular vision and ocular electrophysiology, eye-related anomalous head postures, strabismus and cranio-facial malformations, red reflex and leukocorias, headache and orthoptics, strabismus and orbital diseases, supra-nuclear strabismus, nystagmus, sensorial strabismus, evaluation of visual acuity in pre-verbal age, botulinum in ophthalmology, principles of strabismus surgery
Cain, Dickey, Hogan, Jackson, Minorsky, Reece, Simon, Taylor, Urry, Wassermann: Campbell. Biology: Principles and Links. Molecular Biologu and Human Body. Linx, 2015
Lissauer T, Clayden G. Illustrated Textbook of Paediatrics, 5th ed. Edinburgh: Mosby, 2016
1) Frosini R, Campa L, Frosini S, Caputo R: Diagnosi e terapia dello strabismo e delle anomalie oculomotorie. SEE Firenze 1998
2) Spielmann A: Gli strabismi: dall'analisi clinica alla sintesi chirurgica. Fogliazza Editore Milano 1990
3) Von Noorden GK, Campos EC: Binocular vision and ocular motility. Theory and management of strabismus. Mosby St Louis 2002.