Acquisition of important concepts of general chemistry, inorganic, stoichiometry and organic elements. The course is organized so as to provide a good understanding of the basic chemistry (inorganic and stoichiometry) and is divided into a theoretical part and a part that consists of exercises aimed at the solution of chemical problems. The aim of the course is to acquire reasoning skills to deal with the study of chemical phenomena with analytical and numerical methods.
Lectures and exercises in the classroom.
Starting course on the nomenclature.
1 - STRUCTURE OF THE ATOM
Subatomic particles: Electron, proton, neutron - atomic number, mass number - isotopes - atomic mass unit - Bohr / Rutherford atomic model. Wave Mechanical atom model. - Atomic orbitals - quantum numbers - Principle of exclusion of Pauli - principle of maximum multiplicity - the principle of aufbau.
2 - PERIODIC SYSTEM OF ELEMENTS
Periodical classification and electronic configuration of the elements - Periodic properties: atomic and ionic radii, ionization energy, electron affinity, and electronegativity.
3 - CHEMICAL BOND
Ionic bond, covalent bond, valence bond theory. Electronegativity of atoms and polarity of bonds - Oxidation number. Dative bond. V.S.E.P.R. theory. Hybrid orbitals and molecular geometry. Resonance. Chemical bonding and structural formulas of the most common inorganic compounds. Molecular orbital theory. Metal bond and elements o the band theory.
4 - INTERMOLECULAR FORCES
Van der Waals and London forces. Hydrogen bond.
5 - ELEMENTS OF THERMODYNAMICS.
6 - GAS LAWS.
General characteristics of the gaseous state. Ideal gas. Ideal gas laws. State law of the ideal gas. Law of partial pressures and volumes. Gas diffusion. Real gases. Numerical applications.
7 - STOICHIOMETRY
The concept of mole - Stoichiometry laws. Formula determination of compounds - The chemical equation and its balance. Redox reactions. Stoichiometry: quantitative relationships in chemical reactions. Numerical applications.
8 - CONDENSED STATES AND CHANGES
Solid state characteristics depending on the chemical bond. Characteristics of liquids. State changes. State diagram of water and of carbon dioxide. Mobile equilibrium principle.
9 - AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS
Concentration units. Solubility. Henry's Law. Colligative properties of solutions: Vapour pressure and Raoult's Law;- Cryoscopy and ebullioscopy; Osmosis and osmotic pressure. Electrolyte solutions. Colligative properties of electrolytes. Degree and dissociation factor. Numerical applications.
10 - THE CHEMICAL EQUILIBRIUM
The equilibrium in homogeneous systems. Mass Action Law and equilibrium constant. Factors affecting the equilibrium. Ionic equilibria in aqueous solutions. Dissociation of water and pH. Theory of acids and bases: Arrhenius's acids and bases, Bronsted and Lewis acids and bases. Ampholytes. Hydrolysis. Buffer solutions. Calculation of pH in acidic, basic, salts and buffer solutions. Acid-base reactions and stoichiometry of solutions. Heterogeneous equilibria. Solubility product. Numerical applications.
11 - ELECTROCHEMISTRY
Galvanic cells. Nernst equation. Series of standard potentials and its importance. Concentration cells. Electrolysis. Faraday's laws.
12 - ELEMENTS OF KINETIC
13 - INORGANIC CHEMISTRY
Metals and non-metals: general information on the chemical and physical properties. General characteristics of each group of the periodic system. Alkaline and alkaline earth metals. Main oxidation states and compounds of Hydrogen, Oxygen, Carbon, Nitrogen, Phosphorus, Sulfur and Chlorine. Transition elements: general information. Coordination compounds. Ligands. Coordination number and geometry. Nomenclature. Outline of theories of chemical bonding in coordination compounds.
Texts 1-4 are equivalent and the student is free to choose others not listed.
Texts of exercises 5-7 are equivalent and the student is free to choose others not listed.
1. KOTZ, TREICHEL, TOWNSEND Chimica V edizione - EdiSES
2. ATKINS, JONES, Principi di Chimica – Zanichelli
3. PETRUCCI, HERRING, MADURA, BISSONNETTE, Chimica Generale - Piccin
4. EBBING, Chimica Generale - Editoriale Grasso
5. NOBILE, MASTRORILLI, Vol.1 e 2, Esercizi di Chimica - Ambrosiana
6. GIOMINI, BALESTRIERI, GIUSTINI, Fondamenti di Stechiometria – EdiSES
7. P.MICHELIN LAUSAROT, G.A. VAGLIO, Fondamenti di Stechiometria - Piccin