BIO/09 - 6 CFU - 2° Semester

Teaching Staff

Office: Torre Biologica Via S. Sofia, 89, 95123 Catania CT
Phone: 095.478.1314
Office Hours: Mercol-Vener h 10-12

Learning Objectives

The course allows the student to acquire the knowledge about the vital functions of man and the cellular mechanisms of the major biological systems. It analyzes the integrated functioning of the different organs and systems of control by which the living organism obtains and maintains the homeostasis inside.

Course Structure

During the course of the lessons there will be written tests and oral interviews in the appeals indicated in the exam calendar. About it, the student will receive a pdf of some topics covered in class.

Detailed Course Content

1. Functions of plasma
2. Functions of red blood cells
3. Function of white blood cells
4. Hematopoiesis and hemocateresis
5. Metabolic product of hemoglobin (iron, pigment)
6. Hemostasis
7. Blood groups and compatibility
1. Properties of the myocardium
2. Electrical and mechanical phenomena of myocardial cell
3. Properties of the fabric starter and cardiac conduction
4. Functions of the cardiac nerves
5. Mechanical events of the cardiac cycle
6. Work of the heart
7. The electrocardiogram
8. The heart sounds and phonocardiogram
9. Omeometric and eterometric regulation of cardiac output
1. Flow, pressure and resistance in the arteries and veins
2. Capillaries and exchange of fluids
3. Arterial circulation
4. Venous circulation
5. Relationship between cardiac output and venous return
6. Blood Pressure
7. Blood Pressure regulation
8. Baro-receptors and reflexes
9. Kidney function in the regulation of blood pressure
10. Renin-angiotensin system
1. Mechanics of breathing
2. Functions of the pleural space
3. Respiratory resistance
4. Lung compliance and chest and its measurement
5. Pressure-relaxation curve
6. Work of breathing
7. Ventilation-perfusion
8. Gas exchange and transport of respiratory gases
9. Lung function in the regulation of acid-base
10. Nervous control of respiration
11. Chemical control of breathing
12. Control of the respiratory center
13. Ventilatory responses to acidosis and alcalosis
14. Effects of hypoxia and hypercapnia
1. The nephron as a functional unit
4. Glomerular filtration and measurement of GFR
5. Mechanisms of tubular reabsorption and secretion
6. Inulin clearance, the PAI, glucose
7. Re-absorption of sodium
8. Re-absorption of glucose
9. Water excretion and urine output
10. Countercurrent Mechanism
11. Reabsorption of water: obligatory

12. Reabsorption of water: optional

13. Acidification of the urine, secretion and excretion of ammonia bicarbonate
14. Adjusting excretion d and the main electrolytes: Na +, Cl-, K +, etc.
15. Alkalosis and renal compensation in the acidosis
16. Urination and its regulation


1. Motility of the gastrointestinal tract
2. Secretory phenomena of digestion: saliva and salivary glands; gastric juice; gastric mucosal barrier; pancreatic juice; bile; intestinal mucus; Control of secretions.

1. Diffusion and membrane transport: structure of the membrane; membrane proteins; movements through the membrane; active and passive transport.
2. Resting potential: ionic mechanisms, properties; Action potential: ionic mechanisms, properties
4. Conduction of nerve impulses
5. Synaptic transmission
6. Neurotransmitters, neuromodulators and receptors
7. Sensory systems: receptors
8. The sensitivity of somatic
9. Pain
10. The vestibular system and righting reflexes
11. The different types of movement
12. Reflex movements
13. Posture
14. Voluntary movement
15. Motor cortex and descending motor pathways
16. Cerebellum
17. Nuclei of Base
18. Sleep
19. Autonomic nervous system: control of vegetative functions (temperature, dietary intake, thirst, etc.)
20. Higher functions: memory and mood
1. Neuromuscular junction
2. Striated muscle: contractile proteins, sliding of the filaments, coupling excitation /contraction, mechanical properties of contraction, isometric and isotonic; metabolism; types of muscle cells.
3. The smooth muscle unitary and multi-unitary: structure; single and multi-unit smooth muscle, coupling excitation / contraction, control mechanisms of contraction, metabolism.
1. Hormones, general characteristics, protein and steroid hormones; Synthesis and secretion, transport in the blood, mode of action, the first and second messenger.
2. Hormonal changes in the course of life, from prenatal to old age
3. Pituitary gland, structure and its control by the hypothalamus
4. Pituitary Hormones
1. Male sex hormones
2. Female sex hormones
3. Ovarian cycle, endometrial cycle, menstruation
4. The reproductive system in both sexes
5. General concepts related to fertilization, pregnancy, childbirth and lactogenesis

Textbook Information

- Carbone, Cicirata, Aicardi - Fisiologia: dalle molecole ai sistemi integrati – EDISES

- Stanfield - Germann – Fisiologia - EDISES

Open in PDF format Versione in italiano