Knowledge of the mechanisms involved in the maintenance of homeostasis in relation to internal and environmental modifications. Knowledge of the mechanisms involved in autonomic nervous functions and endocrinology.
The contents of the course will be illustrated by the teacher during seminars. All materials (slides) will be provided to the students.
Functional anatomy of the CNS. Somatosensory system. Anatomical substrate of somatic sensibility. Spinal cord. ascending sensory systems. Spinal somatotopy. Thalamus. Nuclei with specific, associative and non-specific projections. Somatic sensory pathways. Cerebral cortex. Anatomy of the cortex. Evoked potentials. Codification of the peripheral stimuli. Somatotopy of the cortex. Pain. Central representation of pain. Analgesia. Motor systems. Circuitry of motor systems. Motor cortical areas. Interneurons. Motor pathways. Motor neurons. Basal ganglia and their efferent and afferent connections. Parkinson's disease. Cerebellum. Anatomy of the cerebellum. Cellular organization. Learning and memory. Autonomic nervous system. Conditioned reflexes. The organism as an integrated system: omeostasis and regulatory mechanisms. Regulatory systems: hypothalamus, autonomic nervous system, endocrine system. Definition and hormone classification. Biosynthesis, secretion, transport, activation and inactivation of hormones. Mechanisms of action. Sympathetic and parasympathetic systems. Catecholamines and adrenal medulla. Neuroendocrine systems: hypothalamus and posterior hypophysis. Adenohypophysis and its hormones. Adrenal gland and response to stress. Chemical properties and functions of steroid hormones. Prostaglandins, endorphins and endocannabinoids. Thyroid hormones and their functions. Physiopathology of the thyroid gland. Physiopathology of the endocrine pancreas and mechanisms of regulation of glucose levels. Calcium and phosphate metabolism; bone physiology. Hormonal control of the blood levels of calcium and phosphate ions. Physiology of human reproduction. Functions of female reproductive organs: ovarian, uterine and hormonal cycle. Contraception. Physiology of pregnancy and birth. Lactation and its neuroendocrine regulation. Functions of male reproductive organs: functional anatomy of seminal ducts and glands. Spermatogenesis. Hormonal regulation of male reproductive functions.
- Human Physiology: An integrated Approach. By D.U. Silverthorn. Ed. Pearson. 8th edition.