FARMACOLOGIA E TOSSICOLOGIA DELLE PIANTE OFFICINALI E DEI PRODOTTI NUTRACEUTICI

BIO/14 - 9 CFU - 2° Semester

Teaching Staff

GIAN MARCO LEGGIO
Email: gianmarco.leggio@unict.it
Office: Torre Biologica, Via S. Sofia 97, V piano sud.
Phone: 09573840858 cell. 3493911354
Office Hours: Giovedì 10-16


Learning Objectives

Aim of this course is to provide the knowledge of the basic principles of pharmacokynetics and pharmacodynamics. The course is also designed to provide a specific knowledge of the pharmacological and toxicological properties of herbal medicines and nutraceuticals including both indications and contraindications.


Course Structure

Frontal lessons.



Detailed Course Content

Introduction: definition of medicinal plant and current regulatory affairs

Pharmacokinetics:

biological membranes. Barriers.

Drug absorption. Factors that influence the absorption.

Routes of administration.

Plasma protein binding.

Distribution of drugs.

Pharmacokinetic parameters (clearance, half-life, repeated dose toxicity, first pass effect, bioavailability and bioequivalence).

Drug metabolism.

Drug Elimination kinetics;

Variability in drug response.

PHARMACODYNAMICS: Mechanisms and site of action of drugs.

Receptors.

receptor function and variability of drug response.

Agonism, antagonism competitive and non-competitive, affinity, intrinsic activity, effectiveness. dose-response curves, effective dose, lethal dose, therapeutic index, safety.

pharmacological and therapeutic effects.

side effects, adverse reactions, overdose, intolerance to drugs, fetal toxicity; teratogenicity and carcinogenicity.

drug safety and phytovigilance.

Pharmacology and Toxicology of Herbs

Drugs that interfere with the autonomic nervous system (ANS)

sympathomimetic active drugs.

simpaticoplegici-sympatholytic drugs.

parasympathomimetics-cholinergic drugs.

parasympatholytic-anticholinergics drugs.

Drugs interfering with the motor system (Somatic): Neuromuscular blockers (curare, botulinum toxin, bungarotoxin), antiparkinsonian: anticholinergics, ergot alkaloids and dopamine agonists for the treatment of Parkinson's disease

Drugs acting on the Central Nervous System (CNS): stimulants, appetite suppressants, antidepressants (i.e. hypericum), anxiolytics, cholinesterase inhibitors in Alzheimer's disease, cannabis, cocaine, opiates, hallucinogens, caffeine.

Drugs acting on the Cardiovascular System: digitalis, hawthorn, chronic venous insufficiency drug treatment (horse chestnut, pine, pennywort)

Drugs affecting glucose metabolism and lipid: statins, phytosterols, garlic, artichoke, guggul gum, greek hay, fermented red rice; guar gum

Drugs affecting calcium metabolism and bone diseases: phytoestrogens (classification, mechanism of action and possible use in menopause)

Drugs affecting the respiratory system: expectorant, anti-asthmatics (i.e. theophylline).

Antigout (colchicine).

anti-inflammatory drugs and autacoids. (Analgesics and antipyretics)

adaptogenic and immunostimulant drugs: ginseng and echinacea

gastrointestinal drugs: purgatory (with particular attention to the anthraquinone laxatives), antidiarrheal.

dermatological drugs for the treatment of psoriasis: Aloe

Vitamins.

Antineoplastic (i.e. vinca alkaloids and taxol) and carcinogens.

Poisons



Textbook Information

A.J Trevor-B.G Katsung -S, Farmacologia, Piccin, Nona edizione 2012, pp 1-51.

Capasso--Grandolini-Mascolo, Fitoterapia, Impiego razionale delle droghe vegetali, 2006, Springer




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