Knowledge of the primary mechanisms by which the various organs and systems work, the manner with which they cooperate harmoniously in order to maintain the homeostasis of the internal medium. Special knowledge relating to the stomatognathic system, from sensory and motor point of view.
Knowledge of the primary mechanisms by which the various organs and systems work, the manner with which they cooperate harmoniously in order to maintain the homeostasis of the internal medium.
Special knowledge relating to the stomatognathic system, from sensory and motor point of view.
Lectures and theoretical-practical exercises.
Lectures and theoretical-practical exercises.
Biophysics The organization of living beings. Structure of the human body: composition and fluid distribution. Membrane potentials. Passive properties of cell membrane. Action potentials: genesis and propagation. Synaptic transmission. Electrical and chemical synapses: morphology and general properties. The neuromuscular junction. Neuronal synapses. Origin of post-synaptic potentials: neurotransmitters, neuromodulators and their receptors. Pre- and post-synaptic modulation of post-synaptic potentials. The cardiovascular system Morphofunctional characteristics and general properties. Blood: composition and functions. Cardiac muscle physiology. Resting potential and action potential in pacemakes cells and in cardiomyocytes. Molecular mechanisms of cardiac muscle contraction. The heart as a pump: anatomy and function. Excitatory and conductive system of the heart. Control of excitation and conduction. Cardiac cycle. Electrocardiogram. Overview of the circulation. Biophysics of pressure, flow and resistance. Structure and function of blood vessels: arteries, veins and capillaries. Local and humoral control of tissue blood flow. Regulation of blood pressure. The microcirculartion and lymphatic system: capillary fluid exchange, interstitial fluid and lymph flow. The respiratory system Pulmonary ventilation. Pulmonary circulation. Physical principles of gas exchange. Transport of oxygen and carbon dyoxyde in blood and tissue fluids. Regulation of respiration. Acid-base regulation. The digestive system Morphofunctional organization. Nervous control of motility and secretion. Gastrointestinal blood circulation. Mechanical and chemical processes of digestion. Digestion and absorption of carbohydrates, proteins and lipids. Structure and function of the liver. Energy metabolism. Dietary balance and regulation of feeding. Body temperature regulation and fever. The kidney and urinary system Homeostasis of volume and hosmolarity of extracellular and intracellular fluids. Renal blood flow and glomerular filtration, and their control. Tubular reabsorption and secretion processes. Role of the kidney in the regulation of body fluids and electrolytes. Role of the kidney in long-term regulation of blood pressure.
The nervous system
Organization of the nervous system: central and peripheral structures.
Sensory function of the nervous system. Somatic sensations: general organization. Sensory receptors. Transmission of somatosensory impulses to the central nervous system.
The tactile and position senses. Pain and thermal sensations. Trigeminal sensitivity.
The sense of hearing. Inner ear receptors. Central auditory mechanisms.
The sense of vision. The eye: optics of vision. Receptor and neural function of the retina. Central neurophysiology of vision.
The organization of voluntary movement: cortical and brainstem control of motor function. Motor cortex, supplementary areas, cerebellum, basal ganglia, spinal cord. Vestibular sensations and maintenance of equilibrium.
Reflex movements: general properties. Spinal reflexes.
Intellectual functions of the brain, learning and memory. Cerebral cortex. The hippocampus.
Behavioural and motivational mechanisms in the brain: the limbic system and the hypothalamus. States of brain activity. The sleep-wake cycle.
The autonomic nervous system and the adrenal medulla: general organization. Basic characteristics of sympathetic and parasympathetic function. Autonomic reflexes.
Skeletal muscle physiology. Resting potential and action potential in skeletal muscle fibers. Molecular mechanisms of muscle contraction. Role of calcium in muscle contraction. Excitation-contraction coupling. Characteristics of whole-muscle contraction. Isotonic and isometric modes of contraction.
Smooth muscle structure and function. Nervous and hormonal control of smooth muscle contraction.
The endocrine system.
Hormones: structure, function, action mechanism. Segulation of hormone secretion.
Pituitary hormones and their control by the hypothalamus.
Insulin, glucagon and diabetes mellitus.
Parathyroid hormone, calcitonin, vitamin D: role in calcium and phosphate metabolism.
Reproductive and hormonal function in male and female organism.
Various authors - FISIOLOGIA DELL’UOMO - ( di Prampero P.E. e Veicsteinas A.) - Casa Editrice Edi.Ermes, Milano .
Silverthorn – FISIOLOGIA – Casa Editrice Ambrosiana, Milano.
Various Authors - FISIOLOGIA DELL’UOMO - di Prampero P.E. and Veicsteinas A. (Eds.)- edi.ermes, Milano .
Silverthorn – FISIOLOGIA –Ambrosiana, Milano.